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hum

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by

ricky mareus

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of hum

Prelude: Minoan culture,
3000-1100 BCE
The Archaic Age, 800-479 BCE
political, economic, and social structure
Technology in Minoan Crete and Mycenae
Athens, Sparta, and City-states
the emergence of Greece
Beginning: Mycenaean culture, 1900-1100 BCE
The Greek Polis: Sparta and Athens
Technology in Archaic Greece
By Ricky Mareus

By about 2000 BCE a prosperous and stable mercantile culture had emerged
Between 1700 and 1500 BCE it reached its high point


This society, labeled Minoan after the legendary king Minos
Had a complex class systems that included nobles life centered on palaces

The place of Minos, at Knossos,
is the principle source of knowledge about Minoan Crete
North entrance Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete. Ca 1750-1650 BCE
The place complex, with courtyards and staircase indicates that the royal family lived in comfort and security, surrounded by works of art
Friezes
Bands of painting deigns and sculptured figured
Decorated the walls of rooms and hallways
Frescoes
Wall painted made by applying painting to wet plaster
Linear A
Early Minoan writing
A syllabic system
Minoan religion
Minoan religion appeared to have been matriarchal
Led or ruled by women, centering on the worship of mother goddess, or great goddess
Creator of the universe and source of all life
Around 1600 BCE, Crete suffered when a nearby volcanic island erupted.
About a century later, the mainland Mycenaeans conquered Crete but did not destroyed Knossos
Around 1375 BCE, Knossos was devastated
but it is not known how or why

Mycenaean culture, named by archaeologists for Mycenae
A prominent fortress city, developed on the rugged lower greek peninsula known as the Peloponnesus

The Mycenaeans arrived on the peninsula in about 1900 BCE, and by about 1500 BCE, they ruled the entire Peloponnesus
The Mycenaeans adapted Cretan Linear A writing to their own language and produced thousands of Linear B tablets
These tablet contain administrative and commercial document that aid in understanding Mycenaean goverment
Bronze was the preferred metal for the Mycenaean and Minoan.
but copper, tin, silver, and gold were used
Crete and Mycenaean used bronze for weapons and everyday objects
both societies collapsed before the onset of the iron age, in about 1200 BCE
Bronze weapon: swords, daggers, spears, and javelins

After the Mycenaeans, greece entered a period known as the dark ages,
People lived in isolated farming communities and produced only essential tools and domestic objects
Political power was gradually shifting from kings to the heads of powerful families
laying the foundation ofr a new from of government
Iron gradually replaced bronze in tools and weapons, ushering in the iron age in Greece
In about 800 BCE, the Greeks emerged from years of stagnation and moved into an era of political innovation and cultural experimentation


By the beginning of the archaic age, the isolated faring community was evolving into the polis
a small city-state
Eventually some two hundred poleis lay scattered over the greek mainland and abroad
The polis was a remarkably flexible and creative institution that brought diverse people together into a real community
Oligarchies
governments run by the few
Among the greek poleis, Sparta and Athens stand out for their vividly contrasting styles of life and their role in subsequent greek history
Sparta was force to keep its military always on the alert
Spartan boys were trained through the agoge to be tough, brave, skilled, and self-reliant
The Spartan system had elements of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy
The history of Ionian Athens echoes the general pattern of change in the poleis during the Archaic Age
Aristocrats initially ruled Athens through councils and assemblies
in about 590 BCE, the Athenian granted aristocrat named Solon special powers to reform the laws
He abolished debt slavery, guaranteed a free peasantry, and overhauled the judicial system
The Archaic Greek lived fully in the Iron Age
although some artisans continued to work with bronze in limited fields, such as sculpture
The Greek built on the technology of the earlier cultures of Crete and Mycenae
using mainly iron and steel to build weaponry and body armor
Between 800 and about 450 BCE, the greek s developed several modifications of a basic oared ship
at first they used uniremes
gradually the trireme developed, a decked ship with three rows of aors on each side
From about 700 BCE, the uniremes were outfitted with a break or a battering ram, to be used in sea battles
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