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Spread of Civilizations in East Asia
Transcript of Spread of Civilizations in East Asia
During the late 600s, Wu Zhao (woo jow) declared herself the first Empress of China. She had been close to the Emperor of China, became influential, and snatched the throne from the emperor's sons, declaring that she was the "Son of Heaven."
Her strong rule helped guide China through one of its most brilliant periods, while Europe was fragmented into many small feudal kingdoms. Starting with Wu Zhao, China remained unified under two powerful dynasties - the Tang and the Song.
Two Golden Ages of China
Section 5: Japan's Feudal Age
Japanese Feudalism Emerges
• Rival clans battled for control over countryside
Local warlords & Buddhist temples formed armed bands loyal to clans, not the central gov’t.
• Feudal system based on a warrior aristocracy
• Emperor = head of society
Was powerless. Real power in hands of the shogun, or supreme military commander.
• Minamoto Yoritomo = shogun in 1192
• Set up Kamakura shogunate, the 1st of 3 military dynasties lasting 700 yrs.
During the Tang and Song dynasties, the emperor was the most important person in Chinese society. The emperor held a court full of aristocrats and officials who governed China.
The two main classes were:
The Mongol & Ming Empires
Building the Mongol Empire
Mongols were a nomadic people riding horses & raising sheep in Central Asia
Genghis Khan ("World Emperor") united Mongol forces & took over Pacific to Eastern Europe
Section 3: Korea & Its Traditions
Geography of the Korean Peninsula
Located on a peninsula jutting south of the Asian mainland & separated from China by the mountains & Yalu River to the north.
The Brilliant Tang
After the Han dynasty collapsed in 220, China remained divided for nearly 400 years. Unlike western Europe after the fall of Rome, China did not decay. Instead, it survived due to:
Expansion of farm production
Steady improvement of technology
Spread of Buddhism
Growth of learning and the arts.
Even as northern China was attacked, invaders did not destroy aspects of China's culture, but rather adopted it.
Some dynasties, such as the Sui dynasty (589-618) under Sui Wendi, attempted to unify China and failed. China did not emerge glorious and unified until the Tang dynasty in 618.
Building an Empire
The first Tang emperor, Lui Yuan, was a general under the Sui dynasty. As the Sui crumbled, Lui Yuan's ambitious son, Li Shimin, coaxed him into leading a revolt. After a civil war lasting eight years, the father and son emerged victorious. However, the father was old and Li Shimin convinced his father to step down and declared himself Tang Taizong, Emperor of China.
Tang Taizong was an accomplished general, government reformer, historian, and master of the calligraphy brush. He also created an empire for China. It included:
Territories in central Asia
The last three conquests were tributary states, or states that were independent, but acknowledged the supremacy of China and were required to pay tribute. While China exerted influence via military actions, it also attracted students from Korea and Japan to learn about Chinese government, law, and arts.
Government & the Economy
Empress Wu Zhao, among other Tang rulers, restored the Han system of uniform government all over China. They:
Enlarged the civil service system, hiring talented officials who were well-versed in Confucian philosophy
Developed a flexible set of laws
Sent young men to school to prepare for exams
The Tang rulers also instituted land reform, breaking up large parcels of land and giving them to peasants. This increased productivity, increased revenue by means of taxation, and decreased the power of the landowning class. Canals were constructed to transport goods and produce throughout China.
The Tang dynasty became weak due to:
Loss of territories in central Asia to the Arabs
In 907, a rebel general overthrew the last Tang emperor, which plunged China into a brief period of chaos.
Prosperity under the Song
The Song dynasty began in 960 and lasted for 319 years. Even though the Song ruled less territory than the Tang, they ruled a united China. The Song were constantly invaded and during the 1100s, were forced to retreat south of the Huang He where they ruled for an additional 150 years.
Despite invasions and military conquests, the Song dominated East Asia, via their wealth and culture. China's economy expanded while the focus of agriculture shifted from wheat fields of the north to rice paddies of the Yangzi in the south. As a result of improved irrigation and the agricultural shift, productivity in China increased. China traded rice and porcelain in exchange for spices and special woods from India, Persia, and Arabia. Paper money, issued by the government, helped China's cities prosper.
Its members are wealthy and own land
Because they did not need to work for a living, they had time to study for civil service exams and participate in government.
Valued learning over physical labor.
Supported a revival of Confucian thought and opened schools to emphasized duty, rank, & proper behavior.
The ideal civil servant encouraged peace, as well as was wise and virtuous.
They worked on the land, living on whatever they produced. Drought and famine were constant challenges faced by peasants.
To supplement their income, peasants took up basket weaving and embroidery. Then, these items were sold or traded in local markets for salt, tea, and iron tools.
Peasants relied more on each other for help than on the government. If disputes arose, village leaders and/or a council of elders resolved the issue. If the problem could not be resolved, then it was passed on to the emperor's county representative.
Being a member of the peasant class was not a permanent status. Smart, young men who received an education could move up the ranks and increase his family's standing.
While merchants could achieve wealth, they had a lower social status because their wealth had been earned using the labor of others, according to Confucian tradition. To counter this low status, merchants could educate their sons and buy land for them.
Trade and the economy grew despite some restrictions on merchants, especially if they were foreign. For example, foreign merchants were only allowed to live in certain places.
Status of Women
During the Tang and early Song dynasties, women had a higher status.
They ran family affairs:
Managing family finances
Once they were married, women:
Joined their husband's family
Surrendered their dowry
Could never remarry
Emerged during the late Song dynasty.
Began in the court & spread to the lower classes.
Started binding as young girls, using long strips of cloth in order to give their foot the appearance of a lily.
The lily-shaped foot was half the size of a normal foot and the stilted walk produced was a symbol of beauty & nobility.
Large feet viewed as ineligible to marry.
It did not allow women to work and restricted them to the home - a sort of social oppression.
Arts & Literature of the Tang & Song
Derived from the simple strokes & lines of calligraphy.
From the Daoist tradition, artists aimed to capture "the spiritual essence of the natural world" (Prentice Hall, p. 306).
Misty mountains & delicate bamboo forests of China
Portraits of emperors
Scenes of city life
Buddhism influenced sculpture and architecture.
The pagoda (a multi-storied temple with eaves that curve up at the corners) evolved from the Indian stupa.
The sculptures of Buddha created during this era influence how we think of Buddha today - a Chinese god rather than an Indian holy man.
A shiny, hard pottery prized as the finest in the world.
Perfected by the Chinese
Developed glazes to decorate vases, tea services, & other objects that westerners referred to as "chinaware."
Also used to make figures of camels, court ladies, & bearded foreigners.
A Flood of Literature
Scholars wrote on such topics as:
Eventually, there were short stories about:
The most respected form of literature was poetry.
Required to be a Confucian scholar
200 major & 400 minor poets during the Tang & Song dynasties
Li Bo (Lee Bow)
Greatest Tang poet
Wrote about 2,000 poems addressing harmony with nature & the passage of time.
Legend: Died while trying to embrace the reflection of the moon in a lake.
Friend of Li Bo
Wrote about the horrors of war & the unnecessary lavishness of court
Li Qingzhao (Lee Ching jow)
Described experiences of women left behind when loved ones went off to war.
Reflected the period of invasion during the Song dynasty.
• Khan imposed strict military discipline.
Trained, mobile armies were sent to massacre entire cities
Armies attacked China & faced the problem of attacking walled cities. This problem was solved when Chinese & Turkish military experts taught them how to use cannons.
• Mongols & Chinese armies launched missiles against each other using metal tubes filled with gunpowder.
• Khan’s heirs (offspring) continued to expand the Mongol Empire. They dominated for 150 years, spreading from southern Russia to the Middle East.
• Mongols were not oppressive rulers.
People could live as they did before
Had to pay tribute
Ruled with toleration & justice
• Khan respected scholars, artists, & artisans.
• He listened to Confucians, Buddhists, Christians, Muslims, Jews, & Zoroastrians.
• 1200s-1300s: Pax Mongolica (Mongolian Peace) was a period of peace & order within the empire
• Political stability=economic growth
Silk Road trade flourished across Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
• Cultural exchanges (i.e. food, tools, inventions, & ideas) spread along protected trade routes.
From China: Windmills, gunpowder, & papermaking
From the Middle East: Crops & trees
The Mongol Peace
China Under Mongol Rule
• Genghis Khan subdued northern China and the south 70 years after his death.
• 1279: Last Song emperor fell
• Kublai Khan ruled China, Korea, Tibet, & Vietnam from his capital in Cambulac.
• Kublai Khan attempted to protect the Mongols from absorbing Chinese culture.
Only Mongolians could serve in the army
Only Mongols could work in the highest gov’t. jobs.
• Kublai adopted a Chinese name for his dynasty, the Yuan.
Cambulac became a Chinese walled city.
• Kublai rebuilt & extended the Great Canal.
• Foreigners were welcomed to his court, including African Muslims.
• Marco Polo was an Italian merchant.
1271: He left Venice, crossing Persia & Central Asia to reach China.
Spent 17 years in Kublai’s service.
Returned to Italy after visiting India & Southeast Asia.
Marco Polo wrote about the royal palace of Kublai Khan.
His book also described:
• China’s efficient royal mail system
• Couriers road along the empire’s well-kept roads
• Reported that Hangzhou was 10 or 12 times the size of Venice, one of Italy’s richest city-states.
His book astonished leaders in medieval Europe.
• Reports sparked European interest in Asia’s riches
A Western Visitor
• As the Mongol Empire prospered, contacts w/ Europe & Asia continued.
A variety of beliefs were tolerated
The pope sent Christian priests to Beijing.
Muslims set up communities in China.
The Chinese sent gunpowder, porcelain, & playing cards to Europe.
• Yuan dynasty declined after Kublai’s death.
• The Chinese despised Mongol rule. Confucian scholars left China during the Yuan dynasty.
• There were frequent uprisings due to:
• Zhu Yuanzhang, a peasant, led a rebel army, toppling the Mongols & pushing them beyond the Great Wall.
1368: Founded a new dynasty, the Ming, meaning “brilliant.”
• Restored civil service system
• Civil service exams were rigorous
• Confucian learning was preeminent
• A board of censors rooted out corruption & disloyalty.
• Ming China was highly productive.
Fertile, well-irrigated plains of eastern China supported more than 100 million people
Yangtze Valley= huge rice crops
Fertilization improved farming
1500s: Corn & sweet potatoes came from the Americas.
• Chinese industries included:
• The Ming repaired the canal system, which linked regions & made trade easier.
• Technologies increased output of goods
Better printing methods led to a flood of books.
The Ming Restore Chinese Rule
• Ming China = Revival of arts & literature
Artists developed own styles of landscape painting
Created brilliant blue & white porcelain
• Vases were a valuable & popular product exported to the West.
Confucians scholars produced classical poetry.
• Also wrote new forms of literature enjoyed by common people
• Composed novels
• The Water Margin: A novel about an outlaw gang ending the injustices of corrupt officials.
• Wrote the world’s first detective stories
Performing artists developed Chinese opera, combining music, dance, & drama.
China & the World
Ming rulers sent Chinese fleets on overseas ventures. The most famous was Admiral Zheng He.
The Voyages of Zheng He
• 1405: He commanded the first seven expeditions.
The fleet included:
• 62 huge ships (largest was 400 feet long)
• 100s of smaller ships
• 25,000 sailors
Goal was to promote trade & collect tribute from lesser powers across the “western seas.”
• 1405-1433: Zheng He explored Southeast Asia, India, entrances to the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, & ports in East Africa.
Chinese merchants settled in Southeast Asia & Indian trading centers.
Voyages showed local rulers China’s power.
• Zheng He created a stone tablet listing dates, places, & achievements of his voyages.
The tablet proclaimed that the Ming dynasty had successfully unified the “seas and continents” (Prentice Hall, p. 312).
• 1433: Zheng He died. It resulted in the retirement of Zheng He’s ships & the Ming emperor prohibiting:
Construction of seagoing ships
Ships w/ more than 2 masts
• China turned its back on overseas exploration. Historians speculate that it was because:
Fleets were costly
Voyages did not produce profits
Confucian scholars were not interested
China wanted to preserve traditions
• It was a source of stability
• Proved to be a weakness during the 19th century as it left the door open for European countries & Japan to take over
Mountains & Seas
• Steep mountains cover almost 70% of Korea
Most important range = the T’aebaek (Teh behk)
• Runs north to south along the eastern coastline
• Breaks off to form hilly areas
• Most people live near the western coastal plains b/c farming is easier.
• Coastline = 5,400 miles
Many good harbors
Koreans depended on seafood for protein
Today = third largest fishing industry in world
• Korea received cultural & technological influences from China. China had political control over Korean peninsula.
• Korea was cultural bridge b/w China & Japan.
Korea passed traditions to Japan from China.
Korean language ≠ Chinese
• Koreans moved east from Siberia & Manchuria during Stone Age.
• 108: Wudi, a Han emperor, invaded Korea, setting up a military colony there.
• Confucian traditions & Chinese ideas spread to Korea. They included:
Ideas about government
Impact of Location
• 300-600: Local rulers forged the kingdoms of:
Koguryo (Koh Guh Ree Oh) – north
Paekche (Pehk Cheh) – southwest
Shilla (Shil Lah) – southeast
• Despite similarities, China & Korea often fought each other.
Chinese missionaries spread Mahayana Buddhism, taking root among rulers & nobles.
Korean monks traveled to China & India to learn more about Buddhism. Often brought back Chinese arts & learning.
668: Wu Zhao, Tang empress, helped the Shilla kingdom unite the Korean peninsula.
• Korea had 3 dynasties:
• Under the Shilla, Korea = tributary state
Korea had independence, but acknowledged Chinese supremacy
Over time, Korea considered itself China’s younger brother
Family was central to Korean culture
• Women’s rights included:
Holding public roles
• Confucian views restricted these rights. Women became subordinate within the family.
• Korea adopted the Chinese civil service examination, but it reflected Korea’s system of inherited ranks.
Unlike China, only aristocrats could take the exam.
• Under the Koryo, Buddhism’s influence reached its zenith.
• Korean scholars wrote histories & poems like the Chinese. Korean artists did the same.
• The Koryo built Kaesong (Keh Sung), Korea’s capital, just as the Chinese had done at Chang’an.
• Used Chinese woodblock printing to produce numerous Buddhist texts. Eventually, Korean inventors made movable metal type to print.
• Koreans made celadon, porcelain w/ a blue-green glaze.
The technique was lost after Mongols invaded.
Choson: The Longest Dynasty
• Until 1350s: Mongols ruled Korea.
1392: General Yi Song-gye (Ee Sung Keh) defeated the Mongols.
• He reduced Buddhist influence & set up gov’t. based on Confucianism.
A Korean Alphabet
• 1443: King Sejong (She Jong) had experts develop hangul, an alphabet using symbols to represent Korean spoken sounds.
It was rejected at first, but proved to be easier than Chinese.
It increased Korea’s literacy rate, % of people who can read & write.
• 1590s: A Japanese ruler invaded China via Korea, looting & burning the peninsula.
Admiral Yi Sun-shin used metal-plated “turtle boats” to stop the invasion.
6 years later, the Japanese army left, but took many Korean artisans back to Japan, introducing new skills to Japanese artisans.
• Japan is located on an archipelago, a chain of islands.
• Its four main islands are:
Hokkaido (Hoh kye doh)
Honshu (Hahn shoo)
Kyushu (Kee oo shoo)
Shikoku (Shee koh koo)
Land and Sea
• Mountainous terrain, which originally was obstacle to unity.
• Mild climate & rainfall made limited land farmable.
• Seas protected & isolated Japan from the rest of Asia.
Could accept/reject Chinese influences
• The Inland Sea = important link to Japan’s different islands
Fishing industry thrived
Section 4: The Emergence of Japan
Ring of Fire
• A region in the Pacific Ocean, includes:
Parts of Australia
Parts of South America
• Frequently, subject to earthquakes & volcanoes.
Underwater earthquakes launch killer tidal waves = tsunamis
Feared & respected by Japanese
• Mount Fuji = a snowcapped volcanic crater
Is sacred symbol of beauty & majesty of nature
• 2,000 yrs. ago: 1st Japanese pushed out the Ainu (earlier inhabitants) to Hokkaido.
• Japanese society divided into uji or clans.
Each uji had a chief (could be female) & a special god or goddess seen as clan’s original ancestor.
Circa 500, the Yamato came to dominate part of Honshu
For 1,000 yrs. they dominated Japan’s gov’t.
Claimed Amaterasu the “sun goddess” was their direct ancestor
• Resulted in their crest being the rising sun.
• Japanese emperors = living gods
• Current emperor has link to Yamato clan
• Early clans honored kami, or nature spirits
Shinto = worship of forces of nature
• Translation = “the way of the gods”
• Never became international religion
• Shrines = simple & located across countryside
Dedicated to special sites/objects, such as:
Oddly shaped rocks
The Korean Bridge
• Japanese language = more like Korean than Chinese
• Japan & Korea were constantly in contact w/each other
Korean artisans & metal workers settled in Japan
• Exposed Japan to new skills & technology
Warriors from both sides attacked each other’s strongholds
Yamato court claimed Korean ancestors
• Circa 500: Korean missionaries introduced Buddhism to Japan
Also brought Chinese writing & culture
Resulted in surge of interest in China
Japan looks to China
• Early 600s: Prince Shotoku (Yamato clan) decided to learn about China directly instead of via Korean sources.
Sent young nobles to study in China
• Later, students, monks, traders, & officials visited China
Imported from China
• Returned to spread Chinese thought, technology, arts, & gov’t.
• Japanese rulers adopted title of “Heavenly Emperor” & claimed absolute power.
Strengthened central gov’t
Set up bureaucracy
Adopted a law code like China
Rulers had no power beyond court b/c clans = strong in countryside
710: New capital = Nara
Was modeled on China’s Chang’an
Nobles spoke Chinese & dressed in Chinese fashion
• Cooks made Chinese dishes & served on Chinese pottery
• Tea drinking became popular along w/ its elaborate Chinese-inspired ceremony
• History was written in Chinese
• Chinese music & dancing = popular
• Buddhism spread to Japan
• Japan adopted pagoda architecture
• Confucianism also spread
• Filial piety (respect for father, elders, & ancestors)
• Relationships b/w superior & inferior
• Respect for learning
• Selective borrowing = keeping some ways or modifying others
• Initial enthusiasm for Chinese culture decreased
Some Chinese ways adopted, others modified
• i.e. Japan did not use China’s civil service exam. It used educated nobles to fill gov’t. positions.
• 800s: Japanese court no longer modeled on China
Spent next 400 yrs. digesting & modifying cultural acquisitions from China to create own culture
Asserted identity by revising Chinese system of writing & adding kana, or phonetic symbols representing syllables.
The Heian Period
• Heian (Hay ahn) = imperial capital 794 – 1185
Emperors held traditional religious ceremonies
Wealthy court families (i.e. the Fujiwara) had the real power
• Married daughters to royal heirs
An Elegant Court
• Aristocrats lived in a “fairy-tale atmosphere” (Prentice Hall, p. 318)
Rules of etiquette governed ceremony
• “Draping one’s sleeve out a carriage window was a fine art,” (Prentice Hall, p. 318).
• Men could learn Chinese, but women could not
• Heian women produced most important literature (diaries, essays, & poetry) of the period using kana
• 900s: Sei Shonagon = lady-in-waiting to the empress
The Pillow Book
• Detailed account of court manners, amusements, décor, & dress
• Important to have good appearance at court
• Wrote The Tale of Genji = world’s 1st full-length novel
Recounts adventures & loves of fictional Prince Genji & his son
• Heian poems & romances = haunted by a sense of sadness
Love does not last & beauty of world is soon gone
The World of Warriors
• Shogun controlled small part of Japan
Distributed lands to vassals who supported him militarily
Great warrior lords called daimyo (Dye myoh)
• Gave land to lesser warriors called samurai
• Means “those who serve”
• Were fighting aristocracy of Japan
• Heavily armed & trained fighters
• Developed code of values called bushido (boo shee doh)
Means “way of the warrior”
Emphasized honor, bravery, & loyalty to one’s lord
• Supposed to not fear death
• If betrayed the code of bushido, expected to commit seppuku, or ritual suicide, rather than live w/o honor
• At first, trained in military arts
Some became legendary warriors
• Some supervised family estates
• During age of samurai, position declined
• As warfare increased, only sons could inherit
• Samurai code did not place women on pedestal
Instead, had to accept same hardships as husband & owed same loyalty to his overlord
Peasants, Artisans, & Merchants
• Were far below samurai
• Peasants = 75% of population
Cultivated rice & crops on samurai’s estates
Some = foot soldiers during war
• Rarely rose through ranks to become a samurai
• Artisans (i.e. armorers & swordmakers) made necessary goods for samurai class
• Merchants = lowest rank in Japanese feudal society
• Most fighting = b/w rival clans
• Mongols attempted to conquer Japan after Korea & China
1274 & 1281: Kublai Khan launched invasion from Korea
• Typhoon wrecked Mongol fleet each time
• Japanese credited this “victory” to the kamikaze (kah mih kah zee), or divine winds
• Reinforced belief that Japan was special & protected by gods
Order and Unity under the Tokugawas
• Kamakura shogunate declined after Mongol invasions
• 1338: A new dynasty took power
• War increased after 1450
Daimyo armed peasants & samurai defended their castles
• Led to more fighting
• By 1590: General Toyotomi Hideyoshi (He day yoh shee), a commoner, brought most of Japan under his control
Tried & failed to conquer Korea & China
• 1600: Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh kuh gah wah ee yay yah soo), a daimyo, defeated rivals to become master of Japan.
Named shogun 3 yrs. later
Tokugawa shogunate ruled until 1868
• Tokugawa shoguns determined to end warfare
Imposed central gov't. control all over Japan, but kept parts of feudalism = centralized feudalism
• Created unified, orderly society
• To control daimyo = great lords required to live in shogun's capital at Edo (Tokyo) every other year
Daimyo's wife & children had stay full time
Daimyo could not repair castle or marry w/o permission
• New laws upheld strict moral code
• Only samurai allowed to serve in military/gov't. positions
Expected to follow bushido
Peasants had to remain on land
Could not wear luxury items
• Women had restrictions
Required to perform household duties, drink tea, sightsee, & walk along hillsides or face divorce
Had limited freedom to move about or travel w/ husbands
• Economy grew due to:
Restored peace in countryside
• New seeds, tools, & fertilizer = more crops
• Supported population growth
• Towns popped up and cities, like Edo, grew
• Trade flourished
New roads linked castle towns & Edo
Cities: a merchant class emerged
• Had a low social status b/c of Confucianism
• Still gained influence via money lending to upper classes or marrying their daughters to upper classes
Zen Buddhism & Japanese Culture
Sect of Buddhism
Accepted by samurai
Emphasized meditation & devotion to duty
Had contradictory traditions
• Valued education, but valued uncluttered mind & moments of "non-knowing"
• Emphasized compassion for others, but samurai fought to kill
• Sought freedom, but students = completely controlled by school masters
Believed could seek enlightenment via meditation & performing everyday tasks precisely
Changing Artistic Traditions
• Explosion of arts & theatre in Edo & Osaka
• Emphasis on luxuries & pleasures in life
• Resulted in mixing of social classes
• 1300s: Feudal culture produced Nō plays on a square, wooden stage w/ scenery
Men wore elegant carved masks while chorus chanted. Each action was slow & had meaning.
Moral: renounce selfish desires
Recounted fairy tales or struggles b/w lords
• 1600s: Towns gave rise to new drama of kabuki
Influenced by Nō plays
Included comedy or melodrama
Portrayed family & historical events
Created by Okuni, an actress & temple dancer famous for playing warrior roles
• Bunraku: puppet plays
Narrator told story while handlers manipulated life-sized puppets
• Essays reflected Zen values
Miniature poems based on Chinese models
Three lines, totalling 17 syllables
Expressed a feeling, thought, or idea
Painting and Printmaking
• Reflected influence of Chinese landscape paintings
On scrolls, painters recreated historical events
• 1600s: Urban culture produced many colorful woodblock prints according to middle class tastes
Depicted pleasures of town life
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