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volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis

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teni awesome3519

on 14 May 2015

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Transcript of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis

Volcanic Eruptions
Why do volcanoes erupt? It seems like a pretty reasonable question when you first think of it, so let’s look into the answer. The simplest answer would be that magma, being less
than the rock surrounding it, tries to float to the exterior. If the magma contains water and breaks down gasses, when the magma reaches the surface the water and the dissolved gasses will suddenly grow into steam and gas, that causing a chaotic eruption. There are several things that will trigger a volcanic eruption, but three
: the
of the magma, the pressure from the
gases in the magma and the injection of a new batch of magma into an already filled


Earthquakes caused by tectonic plates

The theory of tectonic plates explains how the crust of the Earth is made of several large plates, witch are made up of the crust and float on the Mantle. Since these plates are free to slowly move, they can either drift towards each other, away from each other or slide past each other. Many earthquakes happen in areas where plates collide or slide past each other.

Major earthquakes are sometimes followed by after shock, witch takes place after a major or big earthquake. it doesn't take place after all earthquakes only when one is push with a strong force against another. Therefore the rock masses settle into there new positions.

Magma chamber
The magma chamber is already full.
New batch of magma
Volcanic eruption
The chamber is too full and it needs to push out excess magma and that causes lava to spew out of the top of the volcano.
The after math
Now the lava has cooled down and turns into a special rock called
igneous rock
Cycle of a volcanic eruption: magma chamber
Daredevil photographer Skarphedinn captures a deadly volcano erupting
arthquakes Caused By Volcanoes

Volcanic earthquakes are far less common than tectonic plate related ones. They are triggered by the explosive eruption of a volcano. When a volcano erupts the associated earthquake will usually shake between 16 and 32 km around its base.
The volcanoes which are most likely to explode powerfully are the ones which create acidic lava. Acidic lava cools and sets very quickly when its in contact with air. This chokes the volcano’s vent and blocks the escape of pressure. The only way a blockage can be removed is by the pressure building up until it literally explodes the blockage outward. The volcano will explode in the direction of its weakest point, so it is not always upward. Extraordinary levels of pressure can produce an earthquake of very high magnitude.
10 most famous volcanoes
. Mt. Vesuvius-active-Naples in southern Italy
.Krakatoa-active-Indonesian island of Krakatoa
.Mt St. Helens-active-Washington State, America
.Mt Tambora-active-Indonesian island of Sumbawa
.Mauna loa-active-hawaii
.Mount Pelée-active-French Caribbean island of Martinique
.Thera-active-Greek island of Santorini
.Nevado del Ruiz-active-Colombia
.Mount Pinatubo-active-the Philippines
Volcanoes, Earthquakes & Tsunamis

The two main ways a earthquake happens is as result of tectonic plates colliding and volcanic eruptions. The shock waves also associated with nuclear weapons being tested and other man-made explosions. To be considered an earthquake a shock wave has to be created naturally.
The Richter scale was developed by Charles Richter of the California Institute of Technology in 1935. It is also known as Richter magnitude scale. It is used to measure the intensity of the earthquake. A single number is assigned to quantify the amount of
energy released by an earthquake. This assignment is made after calculations using information gathered by a

The magnitude is a base-10
scale. In other words, when there is a whole number jump, it indicates a ten-fold increase in the magnitude of the earthquake. Therefore, an earthquake with 6 on the Richter scale is 10 times greater than an earthquake with 5 on the same. Therefore, the increase in intensity between an earthquake of 5 and 7 on the Richter scale is 100 times.

Deadliest Earthquakes

.1556-Shaanxi, China -8.0 magnitudes- 830,000 died

.1970-Chimbote, Peru-7.9 magnitudes-70,000 died

.2008-Sichuan Province, China-7.9 magnitudes-87,00 died

.1976-Tangshan, China-7.8 magnitudes-250,000 died

.1920-Haiyuan, China-7.8 magnitudes -200,000 died

.2005-Kashmir, Pakistan-7.6magnitudes-79,000 died

.1948-Turkmenistan-7.3 magnitudes-110,000 died

Tsunamis are one of the most destructive natural disasters on the planet. However like most powerful natural forces they need the proper place and the right condition to happen. Tsunamis are unique in that they are basically the side effects of
activity. This is why it important to know where Tsunamis happen.

As mentioned a Tsunamis is a very fast and very large series of waves created when a large amount of water is shifted. The only way this can normally happen is a when a major earthquake, underwater landslide, or an equally disasterest event occurs. This limits where a tsunami can happen. For example tsunamis caused by earthquakes can’t happen unless the earthquake is 6.5 or stronger on the Richter scale.

A Tsunamis caused by earthquakes come from the plate boundary or fault line where the earthquake happened. However, earthquakes that cause major tsunamis are very rare. As a matter of fact on average there are around just 5 to 6 tsunamis every century, thats 100 years! This just makes where they happen to be more specific than other natural

Did you know that four out of every 5 tsunamis that happen occur in the region called the
Ring of Fire
. This region that rings the Pacific Ocean basis has some of the most active plate boundaries in the world. If a major earthquake happens here is it will definitely be strong enough to cause a tsunami.

1. A tsunami is a series of ocean waves caused by an underwater earthquake, landslide, or volcanic eruption. More rarely, a tsunami can be generated by a giant meteor impact with the ocean. These waves can reach heights of over 100 ft.

2. The first wave of a tsunami is usually not the strongest, successive waves get bigger and stronger.

3. Tsunamis can travel at speeds of about 500 miles or 805 kilometers an hour, almost as fast as a jet plane.

4. The states in the U.S. at greatest risk for tsunamis are Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California.

5. If caught by a tsunami wave, it is better not to swim, but rather to grab a floating object and allow the current to carry you.

6. Tsunamis retain their energy, meaning they can travel across entire oceans with limited energy loss.

7. Tsunami means “harbor wave” in Japanese (tsu = harbor + nami = wave), reflecting Japan’s

8. Scientists can accurately estimate the time when a tsunami will arrive almost anywhere around the world based on calculations using the depth of the water, distances from one place to another, and the time that the earthquake or other event occurred.

9. Hawaii is always at great risk for a tsunami – they get about 1 per year and a severe one every 7 years. The biggest tsunami that occurred Hawaii happened in 1946, the coast of Hilo Island was hit with 30 ft waves at 500 mph.

10. The biggest tsunami wave recorded was 524.25600 meters tall, japan tsunami 2011.
10 facts about tsunamis
1. Indian Ocean (Sumatra, Indonesia)
Estimated Number of Deaths: 350,000
Year: 2004

2. Ancient Greece (Islands of Crete and Santorini)
Estimated Number of Deaths: 100,000
Year: 1410 B.C.E

3. Portugal, Morocco, Ireland and the United Kingdom
Estimated Number of Deaths: 100,000
Year: 1755

4. Messina, Italy
Estimated Number of Deaths: 100,000
year: 1908

5. South China Sea (Taiwan)
Estimated Number of Deaths: 40,000
Year: 1782

6. Krakatau, Indonesia
Estimated Number of Deaths: 36,500
Year: 1883

7. Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan
Estimated Numver of Deaths: 30,000
Year: 1707

8. Sanriku, Japan
Estimated Number of Deaths: 26,300
Year: 1896

9. Northern Chile
Estimated Number of Deaths: 25,674
Year: 1868

10. Kyushu Island, Japan
Estimated Number of Deaths: 15,030
Year: 1972
Worst 10 Tsunamis
Ring Of Fire
-closely compacted in substance
-as the strongest or main element
Ring Of Fire
-it's an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean
-to float
-To separate from one ather at a critical point in temperature
Magma Chamber
-it's a large underground pool of liquid rock found beneath the surface of the Earth

Igneous Rock
-it's one of the three main rock types. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and hardening of magma or lava
-the type of energy realeased by an earthquake
-a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable
-places likley to have a Tsunami
-Seismographs are instruments that measure motions of the ground
-The logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed value, the base, must be raised to produce that number

By teni awesome3519
A new batch of magma is injected into a already full magma chamber.
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