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Transcript of Exercise Plan
Cell respiration is the process in which cells use oxygen to break the chemical bonds of sugar glucose in order to release the energy stored in our food, otherwise known as ATP, or Adenosine Triphosphate
The equation of cell respiration is:
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP
Or as a chemical formula...
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Our bodies consist of three main building blocks known as macromolecules. These three macromolecules are carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Energy in Foods Conclusion
The hypothesis of this experiment was confirmed since the muffin produced the most energy per gram (8.4211 KJ/g). The muffin is a complex carbohydrate which means that it is composed of more glucose molecules. The reason the muffin produced the most energy is because it has the longest chain of carbohydrates which means that it also includes more bonds. The breaking of bonds creates energy, so logically, the more bonds are broken while burning the food, the more energy is produced. Since the muffin had the most bonds, it produced the most energy.
Gummy Bear and Potato Lab
Energy in Foods Lab
The purpose of this experiment was to calculate the amount of energy in different types of foods based on their amounts of glucose. Four foods were tested for this experiment- a piece of waffle, a piece of muffin, a chip and a popped corn kernel. The hypothesis of the experiment was that the muffin would generate the most energy since it appeared to be the most dense out of the four.
Energy in Foods Data
After each group had completed the experiment, the results were put together in order obtain a class average to have more trials and minimize sources of error.
How the body reacts to exercise
When exercise occurs, there are many noticeable changes in our body, including increase in heart rate and breathing rate, sweating, fatigue and redness. These factors are all due to homeostasis, which is the body’s ability to regulate itself to change.
Osmosis and Sports Drinks
Osmosis is a process involving spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane, a membrane that only permits certain molecules to pass through it. Water moves from an area of low concentration to high concentration. Osmolality is the measure of the number of particles in a solution.
All living things depend on the process of cell respiration in order to survive. The sugar from our oxygen and food provides energy for the cells to function. Without cell respiration constantly repeating itself, any cell would die.
Why is it necessary?
What are the products?
The reactants of cell respiration are carbon dioxide (CO2), water and ATP. Since oxygen is carried through our red blood cells, this means that it is transferred throughout our whole body. The oxygen comes from the air we breathe and our natural environments. The air goes through our nose or mouth and into the lungs, which later releases the oxygen into the air as CO2.
Carbohydrates are compounds consisting of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen which can be found in a variety of foods. Examples of carbohydrate rich foods are cereals, bread and potatoes. Carbohydrates exist in two forms- simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. The monomers of carbohydrates are simple sugars- the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose. Their function is to provide short term energy to the body since they are easily built and broken down.
There are two existing forms of fats- saturated fats, where single bonds are present and unsaturated fats which contain one or more double bonds within the carbon chain. Fats, also known as lipids, are made up of the carboxyl group connected to a long chain of carbons known as fatty acids. This is one of the main monomers of fat along with glycerol, which acts as a backbone for triglyceride (where glycerol and three fatty acids are present). The function of fats during exercise is to provide long term energy storage and insulation. Fats are generally slow to break down so they gradually supply energy. Unsaturated fats are easier to break apart, which could be healthier since double bonds create space between molecules so they're not as dense and are instead more liquid.
Proteins are complex molecules which consist of thousands of amino acids connected to each other to form long chains known as peptides. Amino acids are therefore the monomers of proteins. They are made up of three parts- the Amine group (-NH2), the Carboxyl group (-COOH) and an R variable which is usually a side-chain. Protein has many functions including its ability to contract muscles during exercise.
Isotonic drinks contain fluid, electrolytes and 6-8% carbohydrates. These drinks have the same osmolality as body fluid, which is why they are used to replace fluids which have been lost by sweating while also giving a boost of carbohydrates. Isotonic drinks are ideal for middle to long distance running.
Hypotonic drinks contain fluids, electrolytes and low levels of carbohydrates. Like isotonic drinks, hypotonic drinks replace fluids lost by sweating, however they do this without the use of carbohydrates. Hypotonic drinks have fewer particles than blood, which will allow more water to move into the cells. They are ideal for athletes such as jockeys and gymnasts.
Hypertonic drinks are drinks that have more particles than blood and contain high levels of carbohydrates as well as salt and sugar. They are used to add extra carbohydrate intake after exercise in order to refill muscle glycogen stores. Hypertonic drinks are ideal for high intensity sports such as ultra distance running.
Heart and Breathing Rate
There is a direct correlation between the breathing rate and heart rate. When we exercise, we have to maintain equal blood distribution among the body. Since our muscle cells depend on oxygen to release its contained energy, more oxygen is needed when we exercise, as the energy is being burned over time. Red blood cells transport the oxygen and travel through the heart which pumps them to the muscle cells. As muscle action increases, so does the need for oxygen which explains the increase in breathing rates. However, heart needs to pump harder and faster in order to distribute the same amount of blood containing the oxygen which is why there is an increase in heart rate.
The purpose of this experiment was to explore the movement of water. One gummy bear was submerged in tap water and the other in distilled water. Both the gummy bears grew in size, especially the one that had been left in the distilled water. This is because distilled water has been eliminated of its ions, allowing more water molecules to move into the gummy bear. Then, the gummy bears were placed in salt water and the opposite happened- they decreased in size since the salt causes the water to come out of the gummy bear. The same experiment was performed on two cubes of potato, with the same results and reasoning. The experiment was carried out in relation to the movement of water within our bodies. The gummy bear and potato represent the cells in our body, and their change in size and concentration based on varying liquids. This would help determine which type of energy drink was the most suitable for a marathon.
Sweating occurs during exercise in order to control body temperature. As the body temperature rises, sweat glands start to function by releasing its substance known as sweat. Sweat is mainly made up of water, and also contains sodium chloride (salt) and other electrolytes. Heat is minimized when the sweat is evaporated off of the body into the air.
Where do the reactants come from?
The reactants of cell respiration are glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2). The glucose comes from our foods and the oxygen comes from the air we breathe in.
Fatigue during or after exercise is caused by the exceeding of the lactate threshold. The lactate threshold is maximum amount of energy a person can perform without fatiguing. By building up the amount of exercise over time, the maximum capacity of the lactate threshold will increase as the body is adapting.
During exercise, red blood cells (containing oxygen) rise to the surface of skin in order to cool down the face temperature. The blood cells are warm and therefore radiate the external heat off of the skin. Since the cells are colored red, the skin takes their color and turns red or pink as well.
Exercising to Build Endurance
Muscle soreness can be caused by a variety of changes in exercise. This can include high intensity or longer exercises than we are accustomed to, which create small injuries in our muscle fibers, later leading to inflammation and leaving us sore soon after the workout. The best thing to do when sore is to rest or do light activity such as walking or swimming, so that the muscles are given time over the next few days to rebuild themselves and become stronger, which is how we also build up endurance.
While training for an event such as a marathon, the body should build endurance in order to achieve more by the end of each workout. The best way to build endurance isn't to push the body to its maximum, but instead to gradually build up the amount of exercise each time. You should aim to run at your maximum marathon speed in separate intervals, since you should put your body in the situation it will be in during the marathon. The lactate threshold of your body is based on a balance between oxygen intake and energy usage. You will hit your lactate threshold each time you exercise, however it will be pushed farther and farther since your body is adapting to your training. This will push your endurance farther and allow you to run for a longer period of time at a faster pace during the marathon.
How to prepare for the marathon:
You should practice in the months leading up to the run, slowly building up the amount of time exercising as well as increasing the speed over time so that your lactic threshold is bumped up a notch each time.
What to drink:
The type of energy drink most suitable for running long distance is an isotonic drink since it gives you a boost of carbohydrates, and is ideal for replacing lost fluids. It is also important to continue to consume water since it also plays a great part in replacing the depleted liquids in your body as well as cleaning it.
One type of plan which you could follow is the carb-load diet. This is a diet where you do not consume any carbohydrates in the days leading up to the marathon, which creates a figurative 'hole' in your body. Since the body lacks the carbohydrates, it then craves the carbohydrates even more. When you finally consume the carbohydrates hours before the race, it gives a great surge of energy. It is recommended to try this diet a couple of times before the actual race.