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Second Language Teaching Methods

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nugraha Rirfki

on 4 November 2013

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Transcript of Second Language Teaching Methods

Second Language Teaching Methods

Grammar-Translation method
2. Direct method
3. Audio-lingual method
4. Natural method
Communicative Language Learning
The Silent Way
Total Physical Response
Communicative Language Teaching
The Grammar-Translation Method
The Direct Methods
The Situational Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching
Humanistic Approaches
Task-based Teaching

Seven Teaching Methodologies
A way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principle and procedures, i.e., which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned.

What is teaching Method?

A way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principle and procedures, i.e., which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned.

What is teaching Method?


One of the most traditional methods dating at 17th century.
Originally used to teach ‘dead’ language (and literature's) such as Latin and Greek.
First known as PRUSSIAN METHOD in U.S.A and CLASSICAL METHOD in Western world.

1. Grammar-Translation method

Help students to read and appreciate foreign language literature gaining reading proficiency.

Main Object

Students are taught to translate from one language to another-accuracy.
They study grammar deductively.

Teaching / learning process

Teacher is the authority in the classroom.

Teacher-student interaction

Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another.
Students will not have much difficulty in responding to questions on the other tongue. communication between teacher and learner does not cause linguistics problem.


It makes few demands on teachers.
It does virtually nothing to enhance a student’s communicative ability in the language.
Student have a little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations an exercises.
It does not emphasize in the skill required for learning integrally a second language that is still alive.


The direct method is named ‘direct’ because meaning should be connected directly with the target language without translation into native language.

2. Direct method

Basically direct method aims to provide language learners with a practically useful knowledge of language. Knowing a language is being able to speak it.

Only use of target language is allowed in class.
Student are encouraged to think in the target language.
Grammar should be taught inductively.
This method is based on sound principles of education. It believes in introducing the particular before general concrete before abstract and practice before theory.

Main features of DM

students gain direct experience and practical, even beginning students do not understand and comprehend the words being taught, but students be trained if it receives a new word that is often spoken and heard.


Students are motivated to mention and understand the words or sentences in target language that has been taught by the teacher.
teaching to be passive, if the teacher can not motivate students.
at the initial level seems difficult to apply this method, because students do not have knowledge of the target language vocab.
not always consistently use target language in the process of learning.


This method is characterized because of the very little use of the mother tongue in the classroom . Lesson begins with dialog. Use tapes and visual aids, learning vocabulary in context. It is focused on pronunciation. Dependence on mimicry and memorization. According to this method speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence.

3. Audio-lingual method

language is constructed through the creation of correct behavior patterns
This method taught reading skill fluently, clearly and the skill of conversation.


Need the professional teacher.
Need well done subject matter planning.
It’s time consuming.


so called Natural method because of the students' learning process brought to nature as well as his own mother tongue lessons

4. Natural method

presentation of the subject matter without translation except in certain cases where the dictionary and the native language may be used.

Listening => Speaking => Reading => Writing => Grammar

Characteristic of Natural Method

Easily absorbed by the students, because the sentence is taught has a relationship with daily life.


students who do not have the basic of the target language will find it difficult.
requires a lot of teaching aids.
require active teachers speak in the target language.


CLT Suggests communicative language and language acquisition, and the approach proposes way for learners to initialize a second language and to experiment in a classroom context. Therefore, the classroom context is used to create activities to teach students how to react in a real world situation, not fake real-world situation.

Communicative Language Teaching

Other Teaching Methods
is described in applied linguistics as ‘language teaching respecting the integrity of learners, allowing for per-sonal growth and responsibility, taking psychological and affective factors into account, and representing “whole person learning”’. The roots of humanism in lan-guage teaching are various. One central one is the ‘discovery-learning’ movement.
The Silent Way is an approach to language teaching design to enable students to become independent, autonomous and responsible learners. It is part of pedagogocal approach to teaching and learning created by Celeb Gatteno. It is constructivist in nature, leading students to develop their own conceptual models of all aspects of language. The best way of achieving this is to help students to be experimental learners.

The Silent Way

Is a method developed by Dr. James J. Asher, a professor of phycology, to aid learning foreign languages. The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language. That language is internalized through a process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. Students respond to commands that require physical movement.

Total Physical Response

Task-based teaching has become a subject of keen contemporary interest, and different task-based approaches exist today. One underlying principle holds for all the approaches – to place the emphasis firmly on activities or tasks that learners do in class. One thing should be men-tioned is that, there are a number of features that will make tasks more or less difficult. So that we can progressively give our learners tasks where there are more and more things to think about, and consequently less and less attention available for form.

Task-based Teaching
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