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Chapter 17: The East Asian World
Transcript of Chapter 17: The East Asian World
1. China at its Apex
Korea largely follows Chinese models.
New capital of Seoul, tributary relationship with China and continued bureaucratic methods.
Government still nepotistic like Japan.
Some signs of independence from big brother such as the creation of the Korean alphabet.
Growing differentiation between classes.
Korea largely isolated from the world excepting the Japanese invasion and Chinese alliance.
Dai Viet largely unconnected to the Europeans.
Conquest of the Champa state.
Frontier spirit of the the new lands leds to civil war.
Beginnings of French intervention in the country.
Reunification under the Nguyen dynasty.
New name Vietnam and Hue made the new capital.
An increasing technological gap with the West begins as Chinese reverts to antiquity.
Joint family reigns supreme still as most important social unit.
Large families vital for rice cultivation and family security.
Paterfamilias and Filial Piety.
Clan still relevant as it provides social security and opportunities for advancement.
Position of women still rough. Severe limits by husband and family. Likewise few legal rights, educational opportunities and remarriage was difficult.
During this period, peasantry still represents 85% of the population.
Ongoing Shift in power from the North to the South.
Rapid increase in population, 50-100 million typical, but from 1400 to 1800 the population went from 80 million to 300 million.
New crops from America improved food production.
Despite increases land became much scarcer.
China begins some mild industrialization during this period but very different from Europe.
Less independent bourgeoisie, greater state control, higher taxes.
First contact with Europeans in 1514.
The Ming dynasty in power.
Adventures of Admiral Zhenghe.
Barbarous nature of the Europeans vis-a-vis the Chinese.
China's large empire and the hierarchical international system.
Portuguese trade permitted from Macao.
Growing Jesuit influences and western attempts to correlate cultural concepts.
In the late 1500s, the Ming have an increasing number of problems, inflation from trade, corruption, etc.
Revolts grow so serious that the dynasty is ultimately replaced by the foreign Manchu/Qing dynasty.
Initially there is resistance to foreign rule and the Manchus introduce rules to determine loyal subjects. "Better to lose your hair than lose your head."
The Manchus quickly adopt to Chinese ways better than other foreign rulers.
Two early rulers, Kangxi & Qianhong, brought empire to new heights and stability from 1661-1795.
They were known for their intellectualism, scholarship, etc.
During this period the empire brought in and consolidated frontier groups.
By the end of these reigns though corruption, rebellion, etc. was beginning to take its toll again.
Manchu rule was dominated by the dyarchy which shared administrative positions, separated them legally, allowed no Chinese in Manchuria and enforced strict Confucianism.
The decline of the Qing around 1800 was also the beginnings of Western manipulations in the country.
The arrival of the Russians in the north and the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689.
Increased contact with Europe via the sea and the establishment of trading stations.
The initialization of problems with the British over trade issues. The seeds of humiliation.
2. Changing China
Culturally this was a flourishing period for China.
The rise of the Chinese novel.
Architecture such as the imperial palace and the forbidden city.
Other art included lacquerware, silk production, blue/white porcelain, and paintings of traditional scenes.
3. Tokugawa Japan
By the late 1400s Japan was at a point of anarchy due to decentalization.
The daimyo were a major culprit.
The cyclical nature of Japanese history.
Mid-16th century a number of great unifiers centralized the state.
Oba Nobunaga seized power in the capital from the reigning samurai and begins to concentrate state power.
Toyotami Hideyoshi incorporates outlying territories into country and attempted to invade Korea.
Tokugawa Ieyasu became the shogun and completed the process of national unification.
Portuguese first arrive in 1543.
Initially European contacts are valued for trade, technology, etc.
Jesuits were key components of this interaction.
Due to constant intervention though Christians were expelled in the late 16th century.
Likewise trade was eventually restricted to the port of Nagasaki.
External contacts thereafter were limited for centuries.
New system of governance with Shogun ruling 1/4 of the country directly with the cities of Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka.
The rest ruled by Daimyo but not as independent as before.
Japanese capitalism begins to rise with this system as commerce and industry are favored.
Cotton/Textiles one of the key components of this growth.
Samurai increasingly were marginalized, the Ronin revolts.
Peasant revolts were extremly frequent during this time period
3. Tokugawa Japan continued...
Population doubled during this period and overcrowding is not an issue.
Government becomes influential in village and regulates morality even.
Nuclear family takes over due to monetary difficulties in maintaining the joint family.
Confucian values increasingly important which led to tighter control over women.
Women were ultimately lightly valued.
Establishment of a social hierarchy of four classes and an underclass becomes established with no potential now for escape and markers noting social status.
Culturally there are many developments during this time.
Woodblock printing makes popular literature available.
Novels and fiction abound.
Kabuki and No theater arts.
Poetry with Zen influence continues
Art fueled by decrees mandating two residences.
Paintings important and ironically influenced by the West. Common element of Mount Fuji.
4. Korea and Vietnam