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Toward Empire: Early American Imperialism
Transcript of Toward Empire: Early American Imperialism
Spirit of Empire
The Reasons for Expansion
of Hawaii and Samoa
American Foreign Policy:
The American Navy
A War for Principle
The "Splendid Little War"
The Course of War
The Open Door
Treaty of Paris Debate
Governing the Empire
Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines
Outcomes and Legacy
New popularity for McKinley and the Republicans
America as a world power
A series of diplomatic notes written in 1899-1900 by Secretary of State John Hay that urged an “Open Door” policy in China that preserved for China some of its authority over its own territory and trade while at the same time preserving American rights to trade in China.
Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, and Puerto Rico were organized as colonies.
The "Insular Cases" (begun with Downes v. Bidwell, 1901) were cases from 1901 to 1904, in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution did not automatically “follow the flag” to American territories or colonies.
Congress could extend constitutional rights to territories as it saw fit.
Cuba was granted “independence,” but forced to include the Platt Amendment in its constitution, allowing for special privileges for the United States, including the right of intervention.
Puerto Rico became a territory by the Foraker Act of 1900.
Hawaii and Alaska both became territories soon after and later states.
Demanding independence, Filipino insurgents led by Emilio Aguinaldo fought a guerrilla war against American takeover of the islands.
The Philippine-American War (1899-1902) was much more difficult and costly than the war against Spain. It paved the way for eventual self-government (1945).
recognition of Cuban independence
Spanish cession of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands to the United States
U.S. payment of $20 million to Spain
At the end of the Spanish-American war, the Treaty of Paris (1899) caused much debate.
Opponents of imperialism formed the anti-Imperialistic League and argued that acquisition of colonies would be undemocratic, costly, and harmful to labor, wages, and racial harmony.
Supporters of imperialism believed that economic, strategic (military), and intellectual arguments justified American colonialism.
The Senate ratified the treaty in 1899.
June 12, 1898 - General Aguinaldo signs the Philippine Declaration of Independence and becomes first president of the Philippines after defeating most of the Spanish Army
August 9th, 1898: Puerto Rico surrenders to US forces
379 Americans died in battle
More than 5,200 died of disease or accidents
July 3, 1898: US forces captured Santiago
August, 1898: US forces destroyed Spain’s only remaining battle fleet
August12, 1898: The US forces Spain’s surrender. Treaty negotiations begin in Paris.
June 10, 1898: United States invaded Cuba
Spanish POWs after the Battle of Santiago
The Pacific Theater
May 1, 1898: The first battle of the Spanish-American War, the Battle of Manila Bay, was a naval encounter led by Commodore Admiral George Dewey of the U.S. Navy.
The U.S. Navy reported one casualty: death by heart attack.
• June 20-21, 1898 - U.S. takes possession of Guam from Spain
July 25 - August 13, 1898: – The Battle of Manila was the last and decisive battle of the Spanish-American War. Physical conflict ends.
• August 14, 1898 - U.S. sends 10,000 troops to occupy the Philippines
T. Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
after the Battle of San Juan Hill
Buffalo Soldiers in San Juan
The wreck of the Spanish Vizcaya after the Battle of Santiago
Congress and the much of the American public responded positively to war.
Spurred on by jingoism and yellow journalism, more soldiers volunteered than could be trained, fed, or equipped.
The war lasted only ten weeks and resulted in relatively few American deaths.
1895- Revolution in Cuba caused by
an economic depression & discontent with Spanish rule
increased American confidence
strengthened the office of the presidency
enlarged the United States’ empire
demonstrated the United States as the dominant force in the twentieth century.
Spain responded to the Cuban Revolution with
The United States responded to the Spanish actions with
a growing fervor for US intervention in the war on behalf of Cuban independence
President McKinley called for war in April 1898 to secure the independence of Cuba (not colonization, per the Teller Amendment).
policy of brutal repression
accounts by America’s “yellow press,” of atrocities committed by Spanish "butcher Weyler" against Cuban citizens
publication of a letter written by the Spanish ambassador in insulting President McKinley
the alleged sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, proposed that the key to economic and political power was a strong navy. American leaders responded with a swift naval build-up.
they were economically valuable as waystations to China and East Asia
After first purchasing a naval station in Samoa in 1878, the US divided the island chain with Germany in 1899.
they were strategically important as possible locations for Pacific naval bases.
American sugar planters had settled in Hawaii and wanted to be exempt from sugar tariffs, so they overthrew the monarchy and began a revolution to create a republican government in 1893
The US did not annex Hawaii until 1898.
Why the Pacific Islands?
Immediately after the Civil War, Americans were concerned almost exclusively with domestic concerns leading to a sense of isolationism.
After the 1870s, however, Americans, linked to the world through new communication technologies, began to take a greater interest in international affairs, and even expansion. Still, few Americans were interested in imperialism.
1. The "closed" frontier
2. Expanding economy needs new resources and, more importantly, new markets
3. "White man's burden" exalted the importance of exporting the perceived superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization
1. Avoid entanglement with Europe
2. Expand territory for trade
3. Uphold the Monroe Doctrine in the Western Hemisphere