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Transcript of Peabody
Cory Kekich Purpose of the tool: The purpose of the PDMS-2 is to assess both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gross and fine motor development in young children. The results of this test can be used to estimate a child’s overall motor competence relative to his/ her peers of similar age. Target population: Children 0-6 years of age, (0-72 months) Skills Tested: Gross Motor: Reflexes: This subtest is a measure of autonomic reflexes in children
Examples: Walking reflex, Protective reactions.
This subtest is only conducted on children 0-11 months of age
Stationary: Ability of child to maintain COG within their BOS. Examples: Sitting, Kneeling, Standing on one foot, Sit-ups/Push-ups
Locomotion: Ability of child to perform movement activities. Examples: Creeping, Crawling, Walking, Running, Jumping, Stairs
Object Manipulation: The ability to manipulate an object (a ball).
Examples: Catching, Throwing and Kicking balls .
This subtest is only conducted on children 12 months or older Fine Motor: Grasping: Ability of child to use hands and fingers for coordinated tasks.
Examples: Grasping reflex, holding a rattle, Writing with a pen, Coloring in the lines
Visual-Motor Integration: Tests child’s hand-eye coordination
Examples: Tracking rattle, Transferring cube, Clasping hands, Stringing Beads, Folding paper in half, Cutting paper Administration/Scoring: The examiner follows the direction exactly as written in the manual. The Guide to Item Administration provides detailed instructions and illustrations of every item included in the PDMS-2 and how to score each item.
Each item should be administered to give the child the opportunity to get a maximum score of 2, through three trials for an item. Administration/Scoring: Stationary Locomotion Object Manipulation Visual Motor Visual Motor Grasping Visual Motor grasping Visual Motor Each item should be score as follows:
2 = child performs item according to criteria specific to mastery
1 = child demonstrates delay or difficulty when performing the item
0 = child will not or cannot attempt item.
Most of the necessary equipment comes with the PDMS-2 kit, but additional tools such as a measuring tape, a tennis ball, and a stopwatch will be needed.
It will be the examiner’s decision as to when it is appropriate to use adapted instructions for children with disabilities. It should be noted that if this is the case that norms will no longer be accurate. Time to Administer: You should allow 45-60 minutes to complete the entire PDMD-2; however, the completion of either the gross motor or fine motor composites in isolation may be administered in 20-30 minutes. Application of Tool: Will approximate overall motor competence of a child relative to his/her peers of similar age.
The gross motor quotient and fine motor quotient can be used to evaluate if a child has relative strengths and/or weaknesses in these composite areas.
Useful in education therapy because it assesses both qualitative and quantitative aspects of child’s motor performance.
Insufficient skills will be identifiable and can be used to set goals for the child’s plan of care.
A child’s progress can be easily monitored.
The PDMS-2 is a research tool that can be used to study motor development in various pediatric populations. Relevant Research: The Peabody Developmental Motor Scale evaluation has been found to be a reliable and valid tool. According to research conducted by Cup et al., the test-retest reliability of the fine motor subtest of this tool was found to be (r=0.84 to r=0.98), whereas the inter-rater reliability varied from (r=0.94 to r=0.99)1. The authors found the Peabody-FM-2 to be reliable in the evaluation of fine motor tasks; however, the quality to which fine motor tasks are performed by the child cannot be determined by this tool. Authors Haley et al. conducted research on the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale to determine the effectiveness of this tool in evaluating infants receiving physical therapy. The authors concluded that the PDMS-GM can be used to determine change in motor function in infants, however, other assessment measures should be used in conjunction with the Peabody for a more effective and comprehensive evaluation. Sources: 1.Cup, Edith, HC, Rob Ab Oostendorp, and Margo J. Van Hartingsveldt. "Reliability and validity of the fine." Occupational Therapy International 1.12 (2005): 1-13. Web. 14 Jun 2011.http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e30652dc-6092-4907-b166-4fd30f101503%40sessionmgr113&vid=2&hid=125
2. Fewell, Rebecca R., and Rhonda M. Folio. Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. Second. Austin: PRO-ED, Inc/, 2000. 2-15. Print.
3.Haley, Stephen M., Thubi H. Kolobe, Sandra L Jones, Linda Pax Lowes and Palisano, Robert J. "Validity of the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale as an Evaluative Measure of Infants Recieving Physical Therapy." Physical Therapy 75.11 (1995): 939-947. Web. 14 Jun 2011.
4.Picture: http://www.3tailer.com/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/1000x/5e06319eda06f020e43594a9c230972d/8/0/804302L.JPG Object Manipulation Grasping Object Manipulation Visual Motor