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English in the World: Implications for TESOL Practitioners
Transcript of English in the World: Implications for TESOL Practitioners
Countries Outer Circle
Countries Inner Circle
Countries The ELT
Methodology Our Political Involvement Kachru's Concentric Circles of English US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Philippines
China Boundaries between circles tend to coincide with national borders Historically, World Englishes are varieties of English spoken in Outer Circle countries; they developed over time as colonial influences made their mark.
Here, standards have developed that differ from SE.
Now, some Expanding Circle Countries are developing nativized varieties, at a much faster rate than occurred in the Outer Circle.
Although each nativised variety of English has developed uniquely, influenced by the cultures and languages in contact with it, similar linguistic features are found across nations and contact languages. Simplification of
phonology Countries where English is the primary language or Mother Tongue of the majority of citizens How Complex is the Role of
in the World? International Communicative Competence Taking World Englishes and English as an International Language into account,
Kachru's model of concentric circles of English has lost its usefulnes. Standard English is actually not one static language as many people believe. There is great debate, but SE refers to the English that "is generally used in the printed media and carries the most prestige. Some contend that SE can be spoken with any accent." Typically SE is linked with Inner Circle countries.
However, all Inner Circle countries have their own varieties and sub-varieties of English, some of which are not mutually intelligible to speakers of SE. "As an international language, English is used both in
a global sense for international communication between countries, and in a local sense as a language of wider communication within multilingual societies." "EIL in a local sense becomes embedded in the culture of the country in which it is used." million speakers of English million speakers of English million speakers of English Multilingual countries where English serves as a second language. Countries where English is widely studied as a foreign language. t Also called "nativized varieties" of English. ELT professionals must establish a tolerance and understanding of variation (Krikpatrick) Teach tolerance and understanding to counteract prejudice against varieties of English How to determine the variety to be taught: examine the specific needs of learners in their unique specific teaching/learning contexts Advocate for Non-native multilingual users of English as teachers, especially to native monolingual teachers, and also to students.
Promote NNEST interest groups, participate, and befriend NNESTs.
Fight governmental English-only policies. Discourage hiring practices of insitutions that prefer untrained Inner Circle teachers based solely on nativeness:
Would it be reasonable to:
refrain from applying (?),
turn down job offers (?),
recommend bilingual users (?) Don't take these jobs for granted; it is likely that local/ regional teachers will eventually be preferred. Fewer international students will travel for English; cor-responding decrease in Intensive English programs and private prep school programs. Will we see significant changes in immigration patterns? Expose students to World Englishes, EIL, Inner Circle varieties from other countries, sub-varieties, and dialects of English. Explore preferred models, norms, and standards. Create a sphere of interculturality in which students reflect on their own individual experience of culture. Address issues of linguistic prejudice in learners and native speakers; provide cultural sensistivity training More students will remain in their local/regional area for English education, and age for learning English will decrease. Fewer teachers will be imported from the Inner Circle; local multilingual teachers will gain preferred status with local schools. Stop teaching English as a foreign language.
Methodology should be suitable for local cultures of learning and teacher/student roles & expectations. Attitude matters. Teach EIL: repair strategies, lingua franca core, and emphasize intelligibility over identity. Respect local systems, customs, and educational values.
Don't impose Communicative pedagogies; adapt to local needs. Use World Englishes as acceptable models, at least for comprehension; where standards have been adopted, for production. Graddol 2007 offers an updated alternative to Kachru's Circles:
the new Inner Circle is based not on geography but on 'functional
nativeness' (Kachru's revised term); anyone from any circle can acquire
international fluency and function as a native speaker. International Language or Lingua Franca "International English is used by native speakers of English and 'bilingual users of English' (non-native speakers) to communicate across linguistic and cultural boundaries, often in more formal contexts." "As an international language, the use of English is no longer connected to the culture of Inner Circle countries." (McKay) "EIL in a global sense functions to enable speakers to share with others their ideas and culture." (McKay) Expressing one's identity becomes less important than communicating meaning. There are some conflicting definitions of lingua franca in the literature. McKay indicates that a lingua franca is a foreign language acquired only by the elite, and contrasted with a true international language, which is acquired by people at all levels of society.
Kirkpatrick, on the other hand, does not attach elite to lingua franca. Features that accompany development of an IL (McKay's use of Brutt-Griffler 2002):
1. a world econocultural system (trade, business, scientific, cultural, and intellectual life)
2. establishes alongside local languages, yielding communities of multilingual speakers
3. not confined to the socioeconomic elite; learned by speakers from various classes
4. spreads by macroaquisition (many people learning it), not by migration (as in the US) Increased profile, training, and resources will go to local bilingual teachers, benefitting local economies. Initiate institutional change.
Empower local teachers to own their English varieties and their pedagogies. Geo-political ownership
of English is now shared. a language that is used by speakers of different languages to communicate. it could be an international language like English,
a shared national language, or a pidgin or creole. low proficiency users of English may need English for a very limited number of tasks, and may operate most of their daily functions in their tribal, familial, national, or regional language. functionally native speakers in any country For example, in the U.S., Southern American English is spoken in many states, but there is much variation among urban and rural, and from state to state. EIL = English as an International Language
ELF = English as a Lingua Franca
(basically, they mean the same thing) Encourage students to maintain their 'home language(s)' and cultures. Thanks and Good Luck! Nicole "Colie" Ring Young
English in the World, Prof. Anderson
May 2011 - The New School MA TESOL References Davis, W. (2007). Endangered Cultures. Retrieved from www.TED.com.
Falcinelli, L. (2007). English as Lingua Franca. IATEFL Voices 199: 8-9.
Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. UK: British Council.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jenkins, J. (March 17, 2011). Plenary speech. TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA.
Matsuda, A. (2003). Incorporating World Englishes in Teaching English as an International Language. TESOL Quarterly (4): 719-939.
McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nunn, R. (2007). Defining International Communicative Competence. IATEFL Voices 199: 12-13.
Kramsch, C. J. (1998). Language and Culture. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Phillipson, R. (1997). Realities and Myths of Linguistic Imperialism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18(3): 238-47.
Prodromou,L. (2007). Is ELF a variety of English? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spichtinger, D. (2000). The Spread of English and its Appropriation. Dissertation.
Zemach, D. (2010). Can You Be A Good Teacher If You’re Not Fluent? Retrieved from AzarGrammar.com. Background image: NASA. (2006). "Earth's City Lights." Visible Earth. Retrieved fromhttp://visibleearth.nasa.gov.