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Glass Bottles

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by

Emma Goetz

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Glass Bottles

Glass Bottles Raw Materials Sand Cullet Limestone - Calcium Carbonate Manufacturing Process/ Production Sodium Carbonate - Soda Ash Step One: Raw Materials There are four main materials used to make glass bottles; sand, cullet, sodium carbonate and limestone. The sand is the backbone of the glassy phase. The specifications of the sand are crucial to the process. Between the sizes of 40(0.425mm) and 140(0.106mm) mesh sizes, the sand has to be measured to perfection. The other materials are heavily dependent on these measurements. Cullet is a collection of broken and recycled pieces of glass. This material requires a process of removing contaminants including labels, aluminum caps and non-magnetic metal. The glass is color separated and crushed to the max of ¾ of an inch. The pieces are then crushed and the remainder of the contaminants are vacuumed away. Sodium Carbonate or also known as Soda Ash, is the material that gives the glass it's fluidity. It helps the melting process of the making of a glass bottle. Soda ash is the most expensive material in the making a glass bottle. It is only made in two locations in the U.S including Green River, WY and Trona, CA. Limestone, also known as calcium carbonate, is the material that gives the glass it's durability in the glassy phase. Limestone is a very abundant material captured through mining and is necessary for the process of making a glass bottle. There are four steps in the manufacturing process of glass-making. Using 71% sand, 14% soda ash, 11% limestone and 4% other materials mixed with cullet, start with the raw materials. By Emma Goetz The materials are melted continuously for 24 hours at a temperature of 3,180 degrees. The molten glass is then carried through a series of distribution channels called forehearths to the forming machines. At the end of the forehearths, there is a glass cutter, which slices the glass into globs. Their wieght, shape and temperature are controlled by specific regulations. Step Two: Furnace Step Three: Forming There are two stages in the process in forming the glass bottle. First, the globs are transformed into fully formed hollow shapes with openings. A mechanical arm then transfers the shape over to the finishing mold to blow into the final product. Second, the finished object is taken out of the mold with tongs and quickly taken over to the cooling plate before being conveyed away. Step Four: Annealing Lehr Main purposes of a glass bottle may include storage for beverages and other liquids. Glass bottles are designed from very dependable materials that ensure a longer useful life. This reduces the amount of energy and resources needed to replace the bottle. Useful Life The Annealing Lehr is a large tunnel furnace that is controlled to ensure the soldility of the product. It is a machine that heats then cools to create a chemical reaction to harden the bottle. The process takes two hours and 30 minutes. The step before the Annealing Lehr includes surface coating to prevent scratches on the product. Physical Properties Energy Costs End of Life/ Recyclable When a bottle is no longer usable, it is in it's end of life phase. There are several things that could potentially happen to a glass bottle. The bottles are sorted, cleaned and crushed based on color. When the bottle is created, each color has a slightly different material so crushing the bottles is different for each of the colors. The pieces are then melted and reused, by color, to create a new bottle, recycling the materials over and over again. Because the materials can be melted down at a lower temperature than raw materials and be reused/recycled, glass bottles are the top choice for saving energy; which is what our future goal needs to be. The cost to create a standard beer sized bottle is roughly 20 to 25 cents each. However, recycling glass saves energy by not re-making the entire product but melting the old material and creating a new one. This decreases the cost of running the machinery of making the product and the amount of electricity to keep the factories working 24/7. The Glass Packaging Institute states that energy costs drop about 2-3% for every 10% of recycled glass used in the manufacturing process. Recycling glass bottles also reduces the amount of pollution and wasting resources. Glass bottles are made of green, blue or amber colored glass. It is also transparent beside the initial coloring. Changing the color is done by adding small quantities of different oxides such as cobalt or nickel to the mix of materials. The density of glass is 2.23 g/cm3. The texture of a glass bottle is smooth with very little nicks in the glass itself. The bottle itself is a thick, round shape at the bottom and progresses to a thin tube, where the substance inside could be poured out. Glass is very sensitive substance that can be broken easily. Marketing Marketing for glass bottles includes everyone or more specifically, anyone who can drink a beverage. Children, teens, middle aged and elderly, glass bottles has the beverage for everyone. Glass bottles are popular for soda, beer, sparkling water and many more liquids that are produced worldwide. Some major brand companies include Pepsi, A&W Root Beer and Mountain Dew. Packaging for Shipment Ways to Reduce Impact on Earth "Green Factors" Citations First, you want to start by putting the glass in between two thick pieces of material such as sheet styrofoam. Next, to prevent any breaking, pack bubble wrap or newspaper around the box. This will ensure the product from not breaking if dropped. You should pack the product as if it was going to be dropped. Packing glass bottles in mass would be done by large machines that would package the bottles in boxes to ship them away to wherever they were being sold. Through the process of recycling glass bottles, the impact on the earth is reduced. The materials get melted down and re-used for more bottles instead of re-making the entire bottle. This saves money and helps the environment because the energy to produce the bottles is reduced. Green factors of glass bottles include transparent sun protection coating that will increase the shelf-life of medicines, cosmetics and alcoholic beverages which will save money and production rates. Less wasting materials means less pollution from the factories which means cleaner air. http://gpi.org/glassresources/education/sustainabilityrecycling/section-23-raw-materials.html
http://www.verallia.com/en/about-glass/process-and-manufacturing
http://www.ezwebsite.org/Photos/files2704/IN8-IAPS-Activity%2013.pdf
http://www.grinningplanet.com/2005/10-18/glass-bottle-packaging-reuse-vs-recycling-article.htm
http://www.udel.edu/chem/GlassShop/PhysicalProperties.htm
http://www.fusion-glassworks.com/faq.php
http://www.glassbottlesoda.org/brand.shtml
http://www.lpsind.com/ComboPackSpecifications.htm
http://www.glasscampus.com/tutorials/pdf/Shipping%20Glass.pdf
http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/conservation/reducereuserecycle/grownups.weml
http://www.theengineer.co.uk/news/sun-protection-factor-for-glass-bottles/290036.article
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