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The French Revolution

AP Euro & Honors World History
by

Kristin Palomares

on 28 December 2014

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Transcript of The French Revolution

The
French Revolution

Causes
Course
Downfall
Experiential
History Makers
Causes
The Big Move
The Road to Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
National Assembly
Reign of Terror
Revolution in Saint-Domingue
Thermidorian Reaction
From Estates General to National Assembly
Liberty, Equality, & Fraternity
August 27, 1789
Guaranteed
equality before the law
representative government for a sovereign people
individual freedoms
Abolished
serfdom
exclusive hunting rights
fees for justice
tithes paid to the church
Olympe De Gouges
Ideas were rejected
Declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed
Declaration Of The Rights Of Women
Reactions
Church Reform
The National Assembly
took over Church lands
made Church officials/priests state officials
took $ to pay off nation's debt
Effect
Church lost economic & political independence
Alarmed peasants
Escape from Chaos?
June 1791
While heading to the Austrian Netherlands, Louis XVI was apprehended and returned to Paris
We have the baker, the baker's wife, & the baker's son. We shall have bread.
"
Population was divided into 3 estates
France was an absolute monarch with a weak monarch
Financial Difficulties
France sent troops/supplies to aid the American revolutionaries
The Enlightenment
Indecisive
Influenced by wife
Preferred personal interests over courts
Need for tax reform
3rd Estate = 50% tax rate
Government debt
extravagant spending
overambitious wars
Introduction to revolutionary ideas
take up arms against tyranny
liberal freedoms for all men
"No taxation without representation"
Republic > Monarchy
Liberal society = free commerce = flourish
Challenged absolutism
Appealed to bourgeoisie grievances
King Louis XVI
King Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
2nd Estate
3rd Estate
Estates
Roman Catholic church & clergy
Owned 10% of the land & provided education/relief services to the poor
Viewed Enlightenment ideas as radical notions
Contributed 2% of income to the government
1st Estate
Rich nobles
2% of population
Owned 20% of land
Viewed enlightenment ideas as radical notions that threatened their status and power
97% of population
Made up of three groups
Bourgeoisie
Workers
Peasants
50% of income went to clergy
Title the next blank page in your notebook "Garage Sale"
List all the items you have on your person
Write down what you could sell that item for
Add it all up and put the total on the top of the page
Garage Sale
Communes
Move your desks into teams of teams of four
Clergy
pay nobles
collect taxes & convey messages/requests of king/queen
Nobles
keep peasants working or face death
pay peasants for their work (optional)
Peasants
scrub desks, sweep the floor, copy sentences, pick-up trash, etc.
pay taxes
failure to do so will result in removal from land and, ultimately, death
Everyone must keep financial records using the Estates Experiential Matrix
1783
1784
1785
1786
The year 1783 was a good harvest year. Due to this, his majesty King Louis XVI will pay each noble $300, and out of that, the nobility will pay each peasant $50 each. Take the amount you are paid, add it to your “Year End Total,” then place that new amount in the money you have for the year 1784
This year the crops did well, but not as well as the year before. Therefore, his majesty, King Louis XVI will pay each noble $300, but peasants will be paid only $50 from that $300.
This year there was very little rain. As a result, the crops grew very poorly. Due to this, each noble will be paid $200 and each peasant will earn $25 from that.
His majesty has informed us that the famine and crop failure has continued. Due to this, each noble will be paid $300 and each peasant will earn $25 out of that $300.
What was life like for you?
Would you have rebelled against the king? Why or why not?
What are the problems of society? What is your evidence?
What are the solutions?
Debrief
What problems do you see with this social/economic structure?
What are some (at least two) solutions to the problems you see?
Knowing just this, predict what will happen next.
The Estates General was a governing body in France. Years ago it was the first step towards a Constitutional Monarchy, but, it was effectively controlled by the absolute monarchist king. In 1789, King Louis XVI decided to call it together in order to save the failing French economy. Louis knew he could no longer save France on tax dollars of the third estate alone. His solution was to tax the other estates. However, in order to do this, he needed the support of the Estates General. In 1789, he called it to order for the first time since 1614.
Estates General
How should we vote?
OR
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
1st
What is the third estate? Everything!
2nd
What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing?
3rd
What does it demand? To become something therein!
Should the first & second estate be taxed? Why?
Tennis Court Oath
“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly; Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
Storming of the Bastille
Sparked by a rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.
The Great Fear
Sparked by rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
Women's March on Versailles
Taboo Review
Women's March on Versailles
The Great Fear
Storming of the Bastille
National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
Sieyes
Estates General
Bourgeoisie
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI
Jacobins
Radical
Monarchy = :(
Democracy = :)
Violent, immediate change
Minority
Sat on the left side of the ahll
Named after the Dominican Monks of France because they met in a convent dedicated to St. James
Influenced by Rousseau
Moderates
Constitutional monarchy / republic = :)
Feared violence would leave too much damage
Sat in the middle
Girondins
Ex-radicals who feared violence
Constitutional monarchy that would transition to a democracy = :)
Named for the department north of Paris where many participants came from
Pro-war with Prussia & Austria
Sat on right side of hall
Constitution of 1791
created a constitutional monarchy
established the Legislative Assembly
created laws
approved/rejected declarations of war
Declaration
of Pillnitz
Legislative Assembly declared war on Francis II, the Habsburg monarch
First Coalition: Prussia + Russia
France lost
Legislative Assembly suspended king from all his functions and called for the election of a new National Convention
What faction would you be in?
Sans-Culottes
Didn't wear the fancy breaches of the aristocracy
Wanted to fix supply of bread
Fearful that Prussia would destroy Paris if the king was hurt
September
Massacres
Stormed Tuileries Palace
Slaughtered 600 of the king's Swiss guards
The Commune
demanded wider political participation & establishment of a radical government

September 21, 1792
The Republic of France
new constitution
universal male suffrage
The Second Revolution
Challenges to the Revolution
Emigres
Nobles and others who fled France
Hoped to undo the Revolution
Wanted to restore the Old Regime
Saint-Domingue
European Population
colonial officials
plantation owners
merchants
poor immigrants
Slaves & "Freed Coloreds"
500,000
Greatly outnumbered Europeans
Code Noir
1760s: Colonial administrators rescinded rights
1685: Granted free people of color the same rights as whites
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity?
Hopes of freedom from...
abolitionist movements
royal attempts to limit abuse of slavery
Opportunity to...
gain political enfranchisement
reassert equal status with whites
Wanted to protect their way of life...
representative government = gain control
Most profitable Caribbean colonies
refused to extend French constitutional rights to colonies
demanded that each colony draft their own constitution
Vincent Oge
July 1790
Free man of color
Returned from Paris, raised an army, sent letters demanding political rights for all free citizens
Defeated, tortured, & executed
National
Assembly
May 1791
Granted political rights to free people of color born to two free parents who possessed sufficient property
Reaction
Angered the white elite
Governor refused to enact it
Sparked violent revolt
National Assembly
Crash Course
12 min
CloudBiography
3 min
Constitution of 1791
Jacobins
Moderates
Girondins
Emigres
Declaration of Pillnitz
Sans-Culottes
September Massacres
The Commune
Republic of France
The Second Revolution
Edmund Burke
Mary Wollstonecraft
Taboo Review
Austria & Prussia wanted to restore the monarchy
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Edmund Burke
Defended inherited privileges of aristocracy
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
rebuttal
Robespierre
Jacobin
Wanted to build a "republic of virtue"
Leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Assume the role of the character you were assigned
Write a testimony claiming your innocence
Debrief...
Were the accused really guilty?
Is this what the 3rd Estate wanted when the revolution began?
Experiential
You have been accused of being an enemy of the Revolution...
What caused the Reign of Terror?
Was it good for the Revolution?
Did the Reign of Terror have to happen?
How could the Reign of Terror been avoided?
What will happen next?
Committee of Public Safety
relaxed emergency economic controls
used the Terror to wipe out critics
9 Thermidor
radicals & moderates in the Convention decided to stop the Committee of Public Safety
Guillotine
Sent Robespierre
Middle Class
led revolution
reasserted power
Working Poor
collapse of $ controls
rise of inflation
army suppression
Directory
new government
used war as a tool
nullified elections
Reign of Terror
Robespierre
Saint-Domingue
Code Noir
Vincent Oge
Thermidorian Reaction
Committee of Public Safety
Directory
Taboo Review
Our Goal:
Explain the fundamental challenges to Europe's existing political & social order caused by the French Revolution.
Mini-Goal A:
Identify the long-term social, political, and economic causes, as well as Enlightenment ideas, that resulted in The French Revolution.
Mini-Goal B:
Trace the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, increased popular participation, nationalization of the Catholic Church, and abolishment of hereditary privileges during the first, or liberal, phase of the French Revolution.
Mini-Goal C:
Explain how after the execution of Louis XVI, the radical Jacobin Republic led by Robespierre responded to opposition at home and war abroad by instituting the Reign of Terror, fixing prices and wages, and pursuing a policy of de-Christianization.
Mini-Goal F:
Describe how revolutionary ideals inspired a slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture in the French colony of Saint Domingue, which became the independent nation of Haiti in 1804.
2.1.4
Full transcript