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Chemistry STAAR Review Reporting Category 1
Transcript of Chemistry STAAR Review Reporting Category 1
Matter and the Periodic Table Chemical and Physical Changes Chemical changes are when the matter turns into something new.
New substance with new properties. Examples: vinegar and baking soda, burning anything, souring milk, A change in the substance that doesn't change the identity of it.
Many times this will be a phase change. Common examples:
boiling, melting, cutting hair (or anything.), evaporating Pure Substances and Mixtures Elements - found in "their own square" on the periodic table. Made of one kind of atom.
Two types: Compounds - made of two or more elements, chemically combined in fixed proportion. Many substances physically combined in variable proportion.
Two types: Heterogeneous mixture - mixture where you can see the different parts that make it.
Examples - pizza, salad, unmixed Koolaid Homogenous mixture - mixture that is evenly mixed and you can't see the different parts.
Examples - sweet tea, well mixed Koolaid, anything not chemically combined and you can't see the different parts of the mixture. Parts and Trends of the Periodic Table Group one - alkali metals, reactive, one valence electron, +1 oxidation number Group - vertical column, similar properties, same valence electrons Group two - alkaline earth metals, not as reactive as one, two valence electrons, +2 oxidation number Group 3-12 (these are the B's in the middle) - transition metals, Valence electrons will vary. Use what they are bonded with to find oxidation number. S - Block d - block
period number -1 Group 7A (17) - halogens - have seven valence electrons and need to gain one electron, very reactive, Oxidation number of -1 Along with everything on the right...P block Group 8A (18) - noble gases - stable, won't bond Periods - horizontal rows, tells number of energy levels. Two periods on the bottom....
bottom - actinides Make up the F block
period number -2 Atomic radius - size of the atom, increase left and down Ionic Radius - size of the atom after it has lost or gained an electron, increase up and right Electronegativity - an atoms desire to take a valence electron from another atom, increases up and right. Ionization energy - the energy required to take a valence electron away. increase up and right.