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The Role of the RTLB

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Linda Boxall

on 17 August 2014

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Transcript of The Role of the RTLB

The Role of the RTLB
Guiding principles of practice

There are seven guiding principles of RTLB practice. These are:

inclusive teaching
culturally responsive
ecological approach
collaborative and seamless model of service
strengths based
reflective
evidence based.

The RTLB Toolkit shapes our practice
Mā te whakaaro nui e hanga te whare;
mā te mātauranga e whakaū.

Big ideas create the house;
knowledge maintains it.
Other kete that we
draw knowledge from...
RTLB have a Practice sequence to guide our practice.

There are ten steps in the RTLB intervention sequence. These are:

referral
initial meeting
data gathering
analysis
goal setting
planning
intervention/implementation
monitoring
post data gathering/follow up
reflection, review, and closure.

These steps ensure that everyone involved knows the reason for the referral, how the intervention works and are aware of the goals of the intervention. Those involved in the steps are RTLB, kaiako/teachers, parents, and whānau/families. The steps are woven throughout our practice and may be revisited on a needs basis.

(Retrieved from http://rtlb.tki.org.nz/Professional-practice/RTLB-Practice)

Unfurling the Profession
Other Principles we work by...
The Treaty of Waitangi
NZTC Code of Ethics for Teachers
Teacher registration criteria
NZEI Code of Ethics
Professional Learning & Identity
Digital technology and Social Network Learning
Academic Literacy


RTLB need to be able to keep up with academic literacy as a way of knowing about pedagogy, information around psychology,learning behaviours and cultural competency. How do we do this?

through critical thinking and analysis
professional development in our Cluster and team meetings
school liaison information
courses and conferences
information from the Ministry of Education
within our Communities of Practice
study
feedback
Integrated Wellness
Wellness is an important component of anybody's life but RTLB need to be able to integrate this as a role model to others that we are working with.

Making time for relaxation, exercise and good habits for living definitely play a role in being able to work effectively.

Now teaching our students about concepts like mindfulness as a means of dealing with stress is now a theme in some schools.

RTLB have many resources at their fingertips thanks to developing technology. Keeping up with digital knowledge is important to know the multi-layers of technology to help our students/whanau and professionals. It is also as a source of information for our own professional learning.


Some of the tools we draw on are:

assistive technology
Wikipedia
e-books
iPads and the apps available to use with them
YouTube
Skype
web searching
Facebook pages
RSS
social media
Powerpoint and other presentational formats
portfolios
podcasts
twitter
slideshare
Google docs
icloud



Being a Culturally Responsive RTLB
He kākano ahau i ruia mai i Rangiātea
I am a seed which was sewn in the heavens of Rangiatea
•Have affirming views of students from diverse backgrounds
•Have a sense that we are responsible for and capable of intercultural development
•Design instruction that builds on what students already know while…
•Stretching ourselves beyond the familiar
•Working with parents, culturally relevantly •Conduct workshops on differences (for students and staff)
•Arrange small, informal group meetings of parents and teachers to discuss learning, the development of children, the schooling experience,and other topics important to Mäori and non-Mäori
•Work against the self-fulfilling prophecy that Mäori children will fail. Work for the success of all children.
How can we be Culturally Responsive?
Gay (2000) identifies these, in stating that a culturally responsive and competent teacher:

Acknowledges and acquires knowledge about the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups.
Consideration is given to how cultural heritage affects student's dispositions, attitudes.
Approach and content to be used and taught is adjusted in regard to cultural groups.
Builds bridges of ‘meaningfulness’ between home and school experiences.
Uses a variety of instructional strategies, connected to different learning styles
Places emphasis on students knowing about and recognising their own and each other’s cultures
Uses multicultural information, resources and materials across the curriculum.


How we engage teachers to do the same
Te Tiriti O Waitangi
Ka Hikitia
Tataiako
Te Kotahitanga
Ako ako - workshops on Pasifika cultural competency
Guidelines towards culturally responsive practice

“The best thing to do in regards to being culturally responsive in your practice as an RTLB, is to talk to parents about what they want for their child and get their input in putting together the steps to getting there. This ensures that your practice is culturally sensitive according to the family that you are working with, and allows you to focus on what means the most to the family.”
Cross, R (2014, May 22nd) Re: Cultural Awareness Retrieved from: http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1897

“By working alongside Pasifika parents, I am learning about their culture, values and beliefs while providing support with their child’s learning… ako! “
Rice, H (2014, April 10th) Re: What is the RTLB Role in supporting home school relationships especially for Pasifika students? Retrieved from: http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1939

Our culturally responsive practice looks like this....
“In order for multiculturalism to be fruitful in New Zealand, each individual must consider his or her relationship to others” Mervin Singham (2006).
Have socio-cultural consciousness
(Villegas & Lucas, 2002)
http://www.minedu.govt.nz/theMinistry/EducationInitiatives/PositiveBehaviourForLearning/TaumataWhanonga/~/media/MinEdu/Files/TheMinistry/TaumataWhanonga2009/Presentations/AngusMacfarlaneCreatingCulturallySafeLearningEnvironments.pdf(found on p 37)
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research & Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
Contextualised
Practice
He kai kei aku ringa
Key resources that RTLB draw on

NZ Curriculum
Te Marautaunga o Aotearoa
RTLB Toolkit
Collaboration for Success
Ka Hikitia
National Standards
Tataiako
NCEA
Pasifika Education Plan



Human Rights Act (1993)
NZ Disability Strategy (2001)
Education Act (1989)
Te Tere Auraki
The Special Education Policy Guidelines
Success For All - Every School, Every Child
Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI website)
The NZ Council for Education Research
The NZ Education Gazette

There is food at the end of my hands
Barriers
Inclusive Education
Theories of development can guide decision making about interventions and supports.

RTLB can use many lenses from many influential theorists whose work has been researched and proven, to understand child development.
Theories of Learning
Lev Vygotsky
Sociocultural theory
Children construct their knowledge
Development cannot be separated from it's social context
Prior conceptions and new concepts are interwoven
Language plays a central role in mental development
Bronfenbrenner – Ecological Systems Theory
• Childhood is different in every culture, and varies according to economic conditions, life expectancy and access to schooling.
• Early childhood – age 2 – 6 …Learning through play … play frames future learning. Contexts can be enabling or disabling for children depending on how they are considered.
• Youth – Disabled youth are not defined by their disability. Self and group identity very important.
• Works well with the ideals around the Treaty of Waitangi - parrticipation,Partnership,Protection for all children
• This model relates to Children's rights and RTLB Consider it when there is poverty or neglect or abuse in a case.
- Uses the term ‘scheme’ (or schema) to describe a group of thoughts about a particular experience
- Argued that as children develop, their schemas are modified when they experience disequilibrium (when a new experience is not known to their world).
- Children learn different ways at different stages - this is common to every child.
- Four major stages: sensory motor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
- Acknowledged that the rate in which a child passes through the stages could vary and that this was often dependent on the environment the child is raised in
- Learning is maximised when the material presented is partly known and partly unknown.
- In order for adaption to take place, the teacher must know the level of functioning of the child, and present tasks that are moderately challenging. Therefore allowing the child to actively create their own learning.
- Piaget emphasised the importance of the child being an active participant in their development and an active constructor of their own knowledge.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
- Operant conditioning is concerned with voluntary or intentional behaviour. It describes the process of using consequences to increase or decrease the desired behaviour
- ABC- antecedent/behaviour/consequence
- ABA (Applied behaviour analyse) and FBA (Functional behaviour assessment)

Skinner’s operant conditioning
These theorists are the most influential to my practice. There are many more to learn from!
Enablers
"The curriculum is non-sexist, non-racist, and non-discriminatory; it ensures that [all] students’ identities, languages, abilities, and talents are recognised and affirmed and that their learning needs are addressed. "
NZ Curriculum (page 9)
"The Government’s vision of a fully inclusive education system by 2014 has at its heart confident schools, confident families, and confident students. The inclusion principle applies to all students, but it is particularly important when considering the achievement of Māori and Pasifika students and students with special educational needs."
Ministry of Education (2012, March) The Inclusion Principle The New Zealand Curriculum, issue 18
Creating warm relationships with families and students
Use inclusive models when working with schools & teachers
Providing evidence and research about inclusive education to teachers
Suggesting evidence based interventions
Modelling teaching practices and supporting the teacher with suitable resources
Working for effective communication between all parties
Gathering accurate data and using appropriate assessments
How do RTLB promote Inclusive education?
Lack of time, energy, support for teachers to follow up ideas
Lack of resources
Training levels to work with special needs insufficient
Challenging behaviour from students
school/policy not fully embracing of inclusive principles
Not enough money
MoE has some good online resources
ERO monitoring and feedback
New curriculum concepts such as
Universal Design for Learning
Collaborative work with students, parents,
teachers and other agencies
Teacher attitudes to be inclusive and learn
new ways to do this
PD opportunities

Boxall, L (2014, May 17th) Retrived from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2632
Inter-professional partnerships
How we work with others
He aha te kai ō te rangatira?
He Kōrero,he kōrero, he kōrero

What is the food of the leader?
It is knowledge.
It is communication.
What other professionals do we work with?
RTLB will often work in collaboration with others. Individual RTLB are part of a Cluster. The Cluster Manager and Practice Leader plus other RTLB all help to support the Individual RTLB. Besides working closely with whānau and family support, we also work with other agencies that make up Communities of Practice. Working together to share knowledge and information helps to make our work effective, sustainable and relevant. Some other professionals RTLB work with include:
Evidence Based Practice

The individual viewpoint.
My interaction/work with other professionals has been liaising with SWIS (Social Workers in Schools) during and after Special Needs Meetings to find out more information on my students, and the services/programmes they offer, and attending ABT (Attention Behaviour Team) meetings at Marinoto (Waitemata District Health Board) where an individual case is discussed in a forum with a range of professionals (Nurses, clinical psychologists..), Community Constable, PHN and SLT.
How I have encouraged partnership with these professionals has been through regular correspondance and engaging in professional conversations

Cameron, K (2014, May 26). Forming Partnerships with parents and other professionals)


Being part of the big picture with mental health practitioners, support advocates and whanau was really educational for me in terms of seeing how when everyone works together there is a great reward. Feeling the aroha that everyone held for the student and the whanau was really powerful. I was more aware of the professional roles and I saw first hand how important it was that the caregivers and extended whanau had first say with the future interventions. Just as important was how the family were engaged with the process and that the professionals involved explained their roles and how their interventions would work.

Boxall, L (2014, June 1) Re: Forming partnerships with parents and other professionals



I see this as a core principle in my practice as an RTLB, the ability to form and then nurture relationships between student and whanau, and professional services in order to provide the best service for my cases. I go out of my way to make contact and interact with the services and agencies which you have identified (as well as interested parties who provide a link from a strength-based perspective). Having a name to a face and encouraging that partnership is essential. I also link with CYFs, occupational therapists, social skills groups such as Activ8 and Young Forest Leaders, Health nurses, GPs, youth groups, ...etc

Wilkinson, M (2014, June 7) Re: Forming partnerships with parents and other professionals






CYFS
Public Health Nurses
Paediatricians
Police
Social workers
Speech therapists
Physiotherapists
Other specialist teachers
SENCOs, Teachers,
Mental health professionals
GPs
Kaumātua
Strengthening Families
student advocates eg ADHD, ASD
Counsellors
Tutors eg Dyslexia tutors
MoE professionals
Professional Development experts
Excerpts from the specialist forum postings on the topic of forming partnerships with parents and other professionals retrieved from: http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2793
'
Strategies and programmes that have a strong evidential base include:
• Adapted curricula
• Assessment
• Cooperative group teaching
• Peer tutoring and peer support
• Classroom climate
• Social skills training
• Cognitive strategy instruction
• Self-regulated learning
• Behavioural approaches
• Functional behavioural assessment
• Cognitive behavioural therapy
• Review and practice
• Formative assessment
• Feedback
• Social and emotional learning programmes
• Early intervention
• The Hei Āwhina Matua project
• Multi-component programmes.



Evidence-based teaching strategies may be defined as ‘clearly specified teaching strategies that have been shown in controlled research to be effective in bringing about desired outcomes in a delineated population of learners’ (Mitchell, 2012)
Mitchell, D. (2012) Joined-Up: A comprehensive, ecological model for working with children with complex needs and their families/whānau. A review of the literature carried out for the New Zealand Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/~/media/MinEdu/Files/TheMinistry/Consultation/JoinedUp.pdf
The role of Assessment
"The primary purpose of assessment is to improve students' learning and teachers' teaching as both student and teacher respond to the information that it provides...Assessment for the purpose of improving student learning is best understood as an on-going process that arises out of the interaction between teaching and learning" New Zealand Curriculum (p. 39)

Medical
Developmental
Behavioural
Humanistic
Cognitive
Constructivist
Ecological


Models of Assessments
The New Zealand Curriculum (p39) summarises the characteristics of effective assessment as follows:

Effective assessment:

benefits students
involves students
supports teaching and learning goals
is planned and communicated
is suited to the purpose
is valid and fair
Probes
PM running records
Short term auditory memory tests
Language processing test
6 year nets
STAR
e-asttle

Junior Maths Assessment (JAM)
IKAN
GLOSS
Nelson Maths Assessment
NuMPA assessments


RTLB mostly use ecological based methods to gather data and this includes assessment from many sources. We also obtain data from: observations of the class and environment, interviews , cognitive tests, behavioural tests. This will include formal and informal assessment. In this way, we can obtain an in depth look at the student and their strengths to build future learning on.

What are the assessments?
Observational survey
Functional behaviour assessments
IQ assessments
attitudinal surveys



Some assessment that are used
Assessing the assessment....
Before using an assessment, questions must be asked to analyse if the tests are relevant, proven and appropriate to the student's needs. This assessment of the assessment is based on the concept RSVP:

Realiability
-
The extent to which the assessment instrument yields consistent results for each student.
Standardization
-
The extent to which assessment procedures are similar for all students.
Validity

-
The extent to which an assessment instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
.
Practicality
-

The extent to which an assessment is easy and inexpensive to use.


Selecting Assessment
The New Zealand Ministry of Education provides a tool for selecting assessments. This link leads to examples of standardised tests used in New Zealand.


http://toolselector.tki.org.nz/Select-an-Assessment-Tool
Na te whakarongo me te titiro ka puta mai te korero.
Through looking and listening we gain wisdom
.

RSVP taken from
Ormrod, J., Saklofske,D., Schwean, V., Harrison, G. & Andrews, G.(2006). Principles of Educational Psychology. Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Assistive Technology
What is it?
The process
Who & What?
It has only been widely used since the 1980s when computer technology enabled use by students as a tool for learning.

Assistive technology enables individuals to:

• Achieve better performance and independence at school and home
• Have great control over their lives
• Participate in and contribute more fully to activities in home, school and work environmets.
• Interact to a greater extent with non-disabled
( Mitchell, (2008) p 208

Assistive technology is “simply anything that can help a person with disabilities do something they cannot do, or help them do it better than they can without it”. (Ministry of Education, 2012)
Mitchell, D. (2008). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
http://www.midlandesa.org/
The RTLB role


Assistive technology is sometimes called ‘specialised equipment’ or ‘assistive equipment’ and can be described as: “simply anything that can help a person with disabilities do something they cannot do, or help them do it better than they can without it”. Throughout these guidelines the term ‘assistive technology’ includes technology devices such as computer hardware and software products as well as vision equipment, specialised seating, tables and hearing devices.'
Ministry of Education
http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndSupport/AssistiveTechnology.aspx
One of the eligibility criteria for Assistive Technology is that the student is receiving support from an RTLB. RTLB assist in Assistive Technology applications for students . The applications are detailed and require a lot of time and data to demonstrate the student's need for Assistive Technology.
RTLB use data from observations and assessing to support an AT application, they also support the trial use of a technology tool and it's implementation and provide comparative data for Assistive Technology Services (MoE) to assess.

RTLB will monitor the ongoing success of the technology for the student and review the technology when appropriate.
Specialist teachers must show that the requested assistive technology meets the learning needs of the student. ACC provides assistive technology and specialist equipment services to address injury-related needs, (including learning needs) except for classroom furniture. The Ministry of Education funds specialist seating equipment including desks and chairs that are used only in the classroom (equipment that is not taken home).
http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndSupport/AssistiveTechnology.aspx
The Ministry of Education have published guidelines and fact sheets to assist schools and specialists to undertake Assistive Technology applications. Click on the links to see the full version.
http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/file.php/35/6_Assistive_technology/Readings/AssistiveTechnologyGuidelinesv4.pdf
Key points in the guidelines:

Allows access and participation
Allows students to expand their worlds and release hitherto hidden beliefs and abilities
overcoming specific barriers in three areas: presence, participation (engagement) and learning

information retrieved from specialist forum posts by Dana Anderson 4 August 2014
http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=3880
• Those who have trouble using regular keyboards and need adaptations instead of standard computer equipment ie joysticks that can be controlled by using other parts of the body other than hands, expanded keyboards,
• User with limited control of limbs or head – switch or voice recognition programmes
• Partially sighted or blind – larger monitors or speech readers, synthesiser
• Hearing impaired or deaf- hearing aids, telephone aids, alerting aids, entertainment aids
• Specific learning disabilities – simplified key boards
• Process difficulty and remembering spoken language – personal FM listening devices, variable speed voice recorders,
• Learners who struggle with computing, organising aligning and copying maths problems. Electronic maths sheets software, talking calculators, practice and drill software
• Reading difficulties – audio books incl CDs, Mp3 players, Optimal Character recognition (OCR) which scans material with a handheld scanner and transfers it onto a computer that turns it into speech, speech synthesisers and screen readers, online dictionaries
• Writing difficulties – keyboards, laptops to facilitate writing or software to aide with spelling, grammar, organisation eg abbreviation expanders, graphic organiser or outlining programmes, speech recognition programmes (dictation software that links to a computer to produce text), speech synthesiser, speller checkers, programmes that work with word prediction or cloze type choosing of text by the learner.

Who uses it and what is out there?
From Mitchell, D. (2008). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Singham, M. (2006). Multiculturalism in New Zealand – the need for a new paradigm. Aotearoa Ethnic Network Journal, 1 (1), 33
http://www.physiospot.com/
Ethical practice
Teaching is a career that will provide experiences with people from all walks of life, working with colleagues,agencies, students and families. Sometimes dilemmas can arise within difficult situations. For most situations there are procedures or legal rules to follow. Occasionally though, there may be situations that call for a decision that may test a teacher's sense of ethics or justice or even morality.

Teachers have a code of ethics that the NZ teacher's council provides. You can see this code from this link:

(http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/required/ethics/coe-poster-english.pdf).


Because RTLB work closely with Teachers, we may see or be involved with these questions of 'right or wrong?' Sometimes RTLB may be the practitioner that is the one that must question if a situation is ethically right and make some tough decisions-
Ethical Dilemmas
The ERC model is a practical way to arrive at a decision on how to handle an Ethical dilemma. By following the flow of the diagram the steps would go like this:
Consider any legal aspects/obligations
Consider professional conduct or code of ethics teachers are bound to
understand and commit to principles and theories of ethics such as justice and care
Informed inclination is where the teacher's experience or experience of colleagues who may help can be beneficial
Judgement will include weighing up all of the factors
Action is taken and reflected on. Questions should be asked. How did I do? What could have been different? Was it the best decision?
It is important to document such situations for procedural and legal reasons.
RTLB – Guiding principles
• Values and principles – Inclusion, catering for diversity, a belief in the value of good teaching.
• Ethical issues – appropriate use of teacher aides, deficit thinking, inclusive practices, whether to involve external agencies (eg.CYFS), ineffective classroom management (SENCo)
• Use of data – evidence
• Respect, ‘Do no harm’
• Be an advocate
• Rangatiratanga, manaaki, kotahitanga, whanaungatanga
• Be professional, talk to others when faced with a dilemma
• Disclosure, student safety, follow school process



Relevant People
• School counsellors
• Whanau
• Teachers
• Students
• Senior management
• Deans(?)

http://www.rangahau.co.nz/ethics/168/
"What then, is required for teacher to be able to arrive at informed and defensible decisions when confronted by ethical problems?One requirement is that they should recognise ethical problems when they occur and be capable of recognising what is at risk... the second requirement is the need for them to develop skills and strategies for exploring and solving these problems" Hall (2001)
Hall, A. 2001. What ought I to do, all things considered? An approach to the exploration of ethical problems by teachers. Paper presented at the IIPE Conference held at the Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice and Governance, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, 8 April 2001.
Making an Ethical Decision
image/info retrieved from:http://ethicaldilemmasineducation.weebly.com/part-c-research-to-analyse-the-dilemma.html
Why Should We Bother?
How do we engage in it?
Steps of Reflection - Dray & Wisneski (2011)
1. Explain the attributions you have about a student
2. Write out and reflect on your feelings and thoughts when working with the student.
3. Consider alternative explanations by reviewing your documentation and reflections
4. Check your assumptions
5. Make a plan
6. Continuously revisit this process to reassess your attributions and your progress with the student.



For me, I reflect to:

To change practice
To break down prejudices
To make the implicit explicit
To challenge truths
To question the ‘taken for granted’
This reflection can be both formal – Appraisal and Attestation reviews, Peer Supervision, Communities of Practice, through caseloads and CAP’s and informal - Tuakana Teina, Professional dialogue at team hui, Personal thinking time whilst walking etc.
Jo Arnold
Reflective Practice
“Reflection is pivotal to professional development, where the re-thinking of experience provides added personal meaning and learning”
Hoban (2002)
The Ethical Response Cycle was developed by (Newman and Pollnitz, 2002)
Hoban, G. F (2002). Teacher learning for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
what is it?
differentiate between 'impulsive action and routine action"
consider how they practice and what they are actually teaching
reflect on their practice to avoid becoming prejudiced
reflect to keep knowledge fresh and informed
Use observation, reasoning and open mindedness in their work.
Dewey, J.,(1933) How We Think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Heath & Co, Boston.
According to a pioneer of reflective practice (John Dewey, 1933) Educators should;
Personal Reflective practices
To reflect on practice as a new RTLB. I do new learning so I have strategies to offer, or discussion with RTLB studying, and thinking time. Thinking time is often when I relax so walking, gardening, by the sea or mindfulness that is living in the presence moment. Mindfulness can also be mediation. To take time to do this is necessary for my practice therefore I go refreshed to your next case.
Barbara Carey
I spend a lot of time on the road as I am in a country RTLB cluster. This is the best time of reflection for me. When I leave an observation or a meeting I often have 20 - 30 minutes to reach my next school or the office so process the information as I drive - The radio stays off! I am then often ready to add pertinent thoughts . comments to the interactions that have occurred or come up with ideas about next steps.

As I approach a new destination it is time for me to begin to hone in on this case, to review what I am going to do and the things that I need to say. Driving is great time of reflection for me.
Christine Dennis
Retrieved from:
How do RTLB ensure that they are engaging in reflection?
by A Perez - Wednesday, 14 May 2014, Specialist Forum Domain 6 - Ethical & Reflective Practice
http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2574
Dray, B. J., & Wisneski, D. B. (2011). Mindful Reflection as a Process for Developing Culturally Responsive Practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(1), 28-36.
My reflective practices are through: cluster meetings, discussions with colleagues, supervision from practice leaders and cluster manager, notes in my diary, contact notes, action plan format, professional readings, reflection through study, discussions about my practice at home, thinking about how I could do better, online discussions, ticklists, portfolio, appraisal, reflective thought after a meeting.
http://sp8strategies.com/blog/perception
https://www.flickr.com/photos/46775197@N00/361108915/
Image: http://www.waipadc.govt.nz/our-council/about-us/CouncilpartnershipwithIwi/Pages/default.aspx
Image: http://kboo.fm/node/36367
Book image: http://www.vkcindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Knowledge-Bank.jpg. Other clip art from Prezi
http://learningfacilitators.blogspot.co.nz/
This theory provides the framework from which educators and other professionals study the relationships with individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society.
http://mcmetec5303.wikispaces.com/My+Stance+on+Educational+Technology,+by+Jean+Piaget
http://www.weirdexperiments.com/apps/blog/show/5179382-experiments-in-cartoons
http://www.dreamstime.com/photos-images/maori-carving.html
http://weavingpapaka.wordpress.com/kete-whakairo-patterned-baskets/

http://www.asha.org/members/ebp/
References

Anderson, D. (2014, 4 August) A
ccessing AT
Domain 5 Specailaist forum : Assistive Technology. Retrieved from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=3880

Arnold, J. (2014, August 3)
How do RTLB ensure that they are engaging in reflection
? Retrieved from:

Specialist Forum Domain 6 - Ethical & Reflective Practice http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2574

Boxall, L (2014, May 17th)
Inclusive practice
Retrived from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2632

Boxall, L (2014, May 26th) Re forming partnerships with parents and other professionals. Retrieved from : http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2793

Cameron, K. (2014, May 26th) Forming partnerships with parents and other professionals. Retrieved from : http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2793

Carey, B. (2014, May 25)
How do RTLB ensure that they are engaging in reflection
? Retrieved from:

Specialist Forum Domain 6 - Ethical & Reflective Practice http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2574

Cross, R (2014, May 22nd) Re: Cultural Awareness Retrieved from: http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1897

Dennis, C. (2014, June 9)
How do RTLB ensure that they are engaging in reflection
? Retrieved from:

Specialist Forum Domain 6 - Ethical & Reflective Practice http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2574

Dewey, J.,(1933) How We Think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Heath & Co, Boston.

Dray, B. J., & Wisneski, D. B. (2011). Mindful Reflection as a Process for Developing Culturally Responsive Practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(1), 28-36.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research & Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hall, A. 2001. What ought I to do, all things considered? An approach to th e exploration of ethical problems by teachers. Paper presented at the IIPE Conference held at the Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice and Governance, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, 8 April 2001.


MacFarlane, A. (2009) Creating Culturally Safe Learning Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/theMinistry/EducationInitiatives/PositiveBehaviourForLearning/TaumataWhanonga/~/media/MinEdu/Files/TheMinistry/TaumataWhanonga2009/Presentations/AngusMacfarlaneCreatingCulturallySafeLearningEnvironments.pdf(found on p 37)

Ministry of Education (2008) Assitive Technology Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndSupport/AssistiveTechnology.aspx

Ministry of Education (2007)
The New Zealand Curriculum
Retrieved from http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum

Ministry of Education (2012, March)
The Inclusion Principle The New Zealand Curriculum,
issue 18

Mitchell, D. (2008). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Mitchell, D. (2012) Joined-Up: A comprehensive, ecological model for working with children with complex needs and their families/whānau. A review of the literature carried out for the New Zealand Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.minedu.govt.nz/~/media/MinEdu/Files/TheMinistry/Consultation/JoinedUp.pdf

Newman, L., and L. Pollnitz. 2002. Professional, ethical and legal issues in early childhood. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson.

New Zealand Teachers Council (2004) Code of Ethics PDF. Retrieved from http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/required/ethics/coe-poster-english.pdf

Ormrod, J., Saklofske,D., Schwean, V., Harrison, G. & Andrews, G.(2006). Principles of Educational Psychology. Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.

Perez, A - Wednesday, 14 May 2014, How do RTLB ensure that they are engaging in reflection?Specialist Forum Domain 6 - Ethical & Reflective Practice. http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2574

Professional-practice/RTLB-Practice (2008) retrieved from:http://rtlb.tki.org.nz/



Singham, M. (2006). Multiculturalism in New Zealand – the need for a new paradigm. Aotearoa Ethnic Network Journal, 1 (1), 33

Wilkinson, M (2014, June 7) Forming partnership with parents and other professionals. Retreived from:
http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=2793
Rice, H (2014, April 10th) Re: What is the RTLB Role in supporting home school relationships especially for Pasifika students? Retrieved from: http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1939
Hoban, G. F (2002). Teacher learning for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
By Linda Boxall
Full transcript