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Transcript of Roofing System
Intro to Roofing
What is a
- Omar Ahmed
- Ahmed Khalid
- Abdullah Abo El-Magd
- Ibram Amgad
- Sief Nasser
- Ahmed Hany
Contents of Presentation:
- Introduction to Roofing & Cover Materials.
- Types of Roofs.
- Simple Analysis of Roofing System & Materials.
- Roofing Innovations across the World:
- Envelope of a Building or Room
- Protection, privacy, and enclosure.
- Isolation of outer environment.
- Can create multiple floors.
And how may it look like?
Shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region. The main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering. However, different demands of either structural or Aesthetics may be a factor for determining roof design.
The basic shapes are:
However, there are other shapes like:
Some cases are purely Structural, like Flat Slabs. While there are other Roofs that are intended for Aesthetics and Structural efficiency alike, like Domed, Arched, Gabled, etc.
Roofing System (Flat)
*Media representing variety of Roofs.
- The Ground/Floor Level of the upper floor.
- It's made primarily of concrete or reinforced Concrete so as to be able to withstand the load applied on it.
- Supported by Beams or Walls on one or more sides.
3- Flat Slab
4- Hollow-Blocks Slab (1-W, 2-W)
Length/Width < 2
Innovations across the world
The Pantheon, Rome
This Temple's roof is Domed. This dome is an aesthetic amazement as well as structurally; since it's the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus (Eye/Opening in the Dome) and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres. Through the Oculus, the sunlight lights upon all the statuses within the Temple, showing marvelous architectural phenomenon.
- Loads transfer through Beams in One Direction.
- Best for Column Grid, and Beam support.
- Depth of Beams 1/10 of slab's length.
- Slab transfers loads through short direction.
- Shrinkage support needed in long directions.
- Suitable to light-Moderate Loads.
One way flat slab :
- A concrete slab with a uniform thickness reinforced in one direction. (One-Way)
- Has higher thickness than usual slabs
- Supported with only columns and no beams.
- Formed when Ribs are in one direction.
- Hollow Blocks are voided Bricks, for less weight.
- Blocks can be made of Foam or Cocrete.
- Components are light, no Mechanical handle needed.
- Optimal for spans more than 5m with light-moderate live loads.
- Flat & thick slab supported with columns only (No Beams).
Hollow Block Dimensions:
B= 20 cm
C= 20 cm
A= 40 cm
- Provides lightweight monolithic slab.
- Lowers usage of Columns.
- Lowers required concrete and reinforcement.
- Lowers Loads.
Materials used to make Hollow Blocks:
- Beams in Two-Directions.
Slab Aspect Ratio= 2:1 or more
Length/Width >= 2
Flat Slabs are optimal for the most flexibility possible, in terms of ceiling height (minimum slab depth) and allowing flexible column Grid.
- Formed when ribs are in both directions
- Blocks are considered non-structural elements.
- Not Optimal system for skeletal structure.
Layers & Materials
1- R.C Slab :
15 cm reinforced concrete slab
2- Thermal insulation :
5 cm thermal insulation
3- D.P.C :
2 cm humidity insulation
4- Inclination concrete :
plain concrete ranging between 7 to 10 cm specially made to get rid of accumulated rain water over roofs.
5- Sand :
6 cm sand placed to easily stick tiles used
6- Cement mortar :
2 cm cement used to stick tiles
7 – Tiles :
desired tiles used ( marble, granite, cement tiles )
8- Skirting :
20 cm skirting
Nanhei Academy, Taipei
Hospices de Beaune, France
Grand Palais, Paris
Exterior: Pitch Roofing & Gable
This Academy has a Conical shaped roof, over a cylindrical drum with window openings, allowing extra illumination.
- Utilizes SkyLight. This building performs a decent utility of a skylight Roof as well as a rich geometrical entity in design, forming an arched/vault looking Roof, middled by a Dome made of Glass.
Hollow Blocks Installation
Egyptian Code (ECP203)
1- Wooden frame with required ribs and beams dimensions is built first.
2- Hollow Blocks are placed in order.
3- Reinforcement is installed.
4- Concrete is then poured into the frame.
5- In Ribbed Slab, hollow blocks are then removed.
Hollow Block Dims.: e*a*h
- Dis. between ribs <= 700mm
when a= 20 cm, h=15, 20, 25 (Select Greater)
- Width of Ribs (b) >= 100mm or Ts/3 (Select Greater)
- (Ts) >= 50mm or e/10 (Select Greater)
T = ts + h
- Solid Part = 20 to 80cm (Hidden part)
50 to 75cm (Projected Beam)
Block Dimensions = 40x20x15 - 40x20x20 - 40x20x25
- Hidden Beams Design: tb = h + ts + 5cm