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Street Art

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Malena Chaskileberg

on 25 November 2016

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Transcript of Street Art

WHAT IS IT?
Street art, as his name indicates, it's all the art created in the streets, considered the "black sheep of art", and commonly created in very transited urban centers, because this art pretends to get the maximum number of spectators, and above all; impress them.
Street art normally generates some kind of controversy, because in most of the cases it's considered illegal.
Other matter in which Street Art causes an argument is the fact that, even it's a kind of art made with no commercial intention, which symbolizes a revolutionary movement and thinking; it's have led to Auction Houses, where there have been sold works of art of this gender for more than 50,000$
HISTORy
TECHNIques

Stencil

Law Struggles
Street Art is officially a crime, except in cases in which the artists or the artist have consulted and get the permission of the relevant legal authority.
The crime for which it is judged or imposes a fine on the author of the graffiti is "soiling of the public space", in the same way it does to someone who has poured rubbish in a public area.
The difficult thing is to establish the point at which the graffiti is no longer something without sense or reason, and from which point it can be considered art.
But why do we must qualify as a crime an art and artistic expression? If artists can legally perform the work, it is understandable to fine those who do not even request to carry out the work; but in most cases, the authorities do not give authorization or space to artists, because the do not like the contents or do not want to "smear" the streets. Another understandable reason for which artists jump straight to the streets is the message that involves not only the work itself; if not the act of performing the piece illegally, outside the law, which gives more value to the meaning of background, if this is political criticism.
But after all, in my opinion, it's art What's wrong with that being present in the streets?

Street Art
In the term "Street Art" is included both common graffiti, and the multiple ways of art and expression, who doesn't involve any kind of paint sometimes, because they are performed out of objects, that doesn't even need a wall as usual.
Even though of this, the term "Street art" or "Post-Graffiti" stopped to be such a global term at the end of XX century, and it started to be used only to refer to the work of a group of artist who developed a new way of artistic expression, that stepped away from the classic graffiti, , and whose principal feature was a subversive message, all contrary to the common graffiti; whose main intention in most of the cases it's just to dirt or to leave a firm.
This message is normally a critic
to society or statecraft, in an ironic and sarcastic way, whose main objective is to make the viewer to think and reflex about this subjects of common interest.
The criticism, creativity, spontaneity, provocation, the speed of execution, the darkness as best ally, and intention of showing their art to public are part of the intentionality and goals of any Street artist.
The most classic one is the simple use of an paint spray, used in the surface, but since the late XX c and the beginning of the century, there have been developments in the use of new techniques, which allows artist to create more complex, bigger artwork in less time.
One of the most used and well-known ones. Created from the need of performing the work faster, it's based on the use of a template, on which the spray paint is sprayed; leaving the part that the stencil doesn't cover painted on the surface.
Poster
Other well-used technique is the use of stickers or posters (normally in big scale) attached to the surface by an special glue, very resistant.
Alternative Techniques
Because of all the previous mentioned techniques are considered a crime, some street artist have developed a new one, called "reverse graffiti" or "ecological graffiti". It consist on cleaning up some parts of the dirt of a surface, creating a draw, that can't be considered vandalism.
Dust Painting
The street artist Scott Wade is famous for using a unique technique: Dust Painting.
He uses the Reverse Graffiti in surfaces covered in dust, creating hiper-realistic artworks with just his fingers and a brush.
The word "graffiti" has their origins in the greek word "graphein", that means to write.
Even though technically, the paints in Prehistory or in Roman Ages could be seen as the beginning of graffiti, the graffiti starts are considered these:
The first case ever recorded of graffiti was "Taki 183", a messenger from Manhattan, who started to spread this firm all over New York at the end of the decade of the 60's; which was a diminutive from his original name " Demenetraki", and a reference of the street he lived in: the 183.
This firm was noticed by the citizens, who started to question who Taki 183 was, until in 1971 a reporter, who followed Taki 183's hint for several years, finally tracked him down and interviewed him, and publish an article in the New York Times.
This caused an enormous effect on youth, who started to design their own firms, and as Taki 183, spread it all over the city. Inside this movement, there was a "war" to show off who has the bigger, more striking and impressive firm, or who could leave it in the most dangerous and blatant place.

Ever since then, posterior artists experimented with color, shape, and techniques; thus creating, true pieces of art.
During the decades of 80's and 90's, new techniques are created, such like the use of stencils, posters, stickers, and murals who lead artists to develop a work in and outside the street, more elaborated, and artistic, with the objective of, trough the visual impact and the undertone with a message; turn into a revolutionary and rebel cultural movement, with ironic critics to society, politics or other topics of interest, inviting to reflexion.

During the full development of Street Art, this movement had multiple cores, but the more important were New York, and Paris; thanks to the world-wide know street artists Blek Le Rat; one of the bigger inspirations and icons to the next urban artists generation.

Since the beginning of the XXI century, this way of expression jumped off to fame because of his enlargement of content, the attention of the media and the zenith of urban artists like Shepard Fairey or Banksy.
GREAT CHARACTERS OF
sTREET aRT
Jean-Michel Basquiat
BLEK LE RAT
(1952- ) He is one of
the most influential and important artists
in this movement, who was an inspiration for later artists, and known for widely innovating in Street Art.
It is the artistic name of the french urban artist Xavier Prou, born in 1952 and considered
"The father of stencil
".
The pseudonym of "Blek Le Rat" comes from the title of the comic-book "Blek Le Roc" and "Rat" as an anagram from "art".
Xavier has created a lot of pieces starring rats, which are defined by him as "the only free animal in the city", and one which "spreads the plague everywhere, just like Street art".
The ideology and values of Blek Le Rat could be summarized in this quote of himself, which was and inspiration for later artist and represents the spirit of Street Art; "I attempt to expose the finer things in life by unexpected images that distract and delight pedestrians, removing them from their everyday concerns. Although retaliation by the police against the graffiti, I will continue to storm the streets in the dark, because for me, carrying out the work directly to the streets is a major part of the evolution of art ".
Space Invader
Or simply "Invader", It is a known street artists from France, whose artistic name is a reference of the famous game from the 70's "Space Invaders".
He is
one of the artist who has more expanded and spread his art
, traveling all over the world, and leaving part of his artwork in the most important cities like Paris, London, Bilbao, New York...
His style, as his own name name indicates, is inspired in the pixelated style of the classic videogames of 8 bytes of the 70's and 80's like Space Invaders, Pac-Man, or Mario Bros. This videogames, gave them the idea of the mosaic technique (Previously mentioned), originally applied to Street Art by him.
Since then, Invader's works have been present in more than 60 cities in over 30 cities.
Inside of these cities, Invader has marked some of the historic buildings and sites representative of the corresponding cities.
One of the most prominent sites that the artist has marked is the sign "Hollywood".

Mosaic
This technique was designed and performed by the artist Space Invader. It is based on creating the piece sticking little plastic or silicone squares , creating like that a mosaic.
Shepard Fairey
He has been rated by the Institute of Urban Art Boston as
one of the most famous and influential urban artists.
Born in 1990 in the U.S.A, he is an urban-contemporaneous artist . He was one of the first artists to use and spread the technique of the sticker, and one of his bigger features is the use of large scale posters.
Known for his most famous work; the stickers with the face of the wrestler Andre "The Giant". The artist himself described as an "experiment in phenomenology"; which appeared successful, as this has become a pop culture reference.
His rise to fame in 2008, during the presidential elections in his country, was because of
his poster "Hope"
of the candidate (and current president) Barack Obama of the Democratic Party, which has become a modern icon, and an imitated artistic resource, of which there have been several versions. This poster had so much attention from the media and the masses, that the Democratic Party adopted the poster as part of his election campaign.
His works have come to be exposed in many of the most renowned museums such as the Smithsonian, the Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego, The Museum of Modern Art in New York. The Museum of Arts in Los Angeles, etc ...
BANSKY
Mr.BRAINWASH
"Banksy" is the pseudonym of an urban artist, of unknown identity, of english nacionality; one of the most viral ones, world-widely known, and possibly the most important and representative figure of the urban art today.
His characteristical style, satirical and ironic, and the important subversive message combined with some black humor in his distinctive technique of the stencil; create his distinctive "trademark", a very personal style that involves both a critic to politics and society, which is present in all of his works.
This style shares similarities with the artist Blek Le Rat, one of the main inspirations and references to Banksy, who claims that by this quote: "every time I think I've painted something slightly the original, I find out That Blek Le Rat has done it as well, only twenty years earlier".
In 2003,
Banksy produced and distributed across England a lot of false banknotes
of ten pounds, replacing the image of Queen Elizabeth by Princess Diana; and the text "Bank of England" to "Banksy of England".
Between 2006 and 2007 takes place what is known as "
The Banksy effect".
In 2010, during the Sundance Film Festival, the debut of his first documentary film it took place: "Exit trought the gift shop", described as "the first disaster film of Street Art." It was nominated in 2011 in the category of Best Documentary Film at the Oscars and winner of the Independent Spirit Award in the same category.
Since then, Banksy has been the most famous urban art figure of the past decade, carrying out his works at various locations around the world.
3D STREET ART
A subgenre that leaves slightly aside the objective of making the audience think, but not abandoned; and in fact it focuses on impressing the viewer: the three-dimensional art.
This art, currently in heyday, tries to create images in three dimensions, as realistic as possible, using effects in order to impress the viewer into believing, for example; that is falling off a cliff.
(1960-1988) Even tough he was a painter, he is very attached to Street Art because of his roots in graffiti, his lifestyle and values, which are considered the base of Street Art spirit.
His style had a big poetical and philosophical charge, but above all; it was satirical and Jean Michel himself described it as a "shocking combination of De Kooning art and scrawls painted with spray in the New York subway".

Mr.Brainwash (Or MBW) is the pseudonym of the French urban artist
Thierry Guett
a, who is the main theme about the documentary film made by Banksy "Exit trough the gift shop".

Mr Brainwash's style called "Pop-graffiti" has clear influences of pop culture, especially from the artist Andy Warhol, and makes constant references to iconography and popular culture, creating an ironic message with graffiti aesthetic, and unlike most urban artists, MrBrainwash uses a wide range of colors, creating very colorful pieces.
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