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Exploring Intellectual Disabilities

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byron de Iongh

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of Exploring Intellectual Disabilities

IPAD in teaching Pythagorean Theorem to Adolescents with Moderate ID
Exploring Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities
A True Journey for Independence
Definition & Characteristics
Definition : Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Causes & Prevalence
Intellectual disability can be caused by any condition that impairs development of the brain before birth, during birth or in the childhood years. Several hundred causes have been discovered, but in about one-third of the people affected, the cause remains unknown. The three major known causes of intellectual disability are Down syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Fragile X syndrome. The causes can be categorized as follows:
1. Assessment of Adaptive Behavior
Educational Curriculum/Instruction
1. Systematic Instruction

Transition Programming and Social Integration

the ability to act autonomously, be self-regulated, act in a psychologically empowered manner, and act in a self-realized manner.

- Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory
- Cummins article- Community Integration or Community Exposure?

American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities
Visual Aids:
Graphic Organizers
Classification of Intellectual Disabilities
American Psychological Association
Mild Intellectual Disability
~IQ 50 to 70
~Slower than typical in all developmental areas
~No unusual physical characteristics
~Able to learn practical life skills
~Attains reading and math skills up to grade levels 3 to 6
~Able to blend in socially
~Functions in daily life
Moderate Intellectual Disability
~IQ 35 to 49
~Noticeable developmental delays (i.e. speech, motor skills)
~May have physical signs of impairment (i.e. thick tongue)
~Can communicate in basic, simple ways
~Able to learn basic health and safety skills
~Can complete self-care activities
~Can travel alone to nearby, familiar places
Severe Intellectual Disability
~IQ 20 to 34
~Considerable delays in development
~Understands speech, but little ability to communicate
~Able to learn daily routines
~May learn very simple self-care
~Needs direct supervision in social situations
Profound Intellectual Disability
~IQ less than 20
~Significant developmental delays in all areas
~Obvious physical and congenital abnormalities
~Requires close supervision
~Requires attendant to help in self-care activities
~May respond to physical and social activities
~Not capable of independent living
85 percent
of people with intellectual disabilities fall into the mild category and many even achieve academic success. A person who can read, but has difficulty comprehending what he or she reads represents one example of someone with mild intellectual disability.
People with moderate intellectual disability have fair communication skills, but cannot typically communicate on complex levels. They may have difficulty in social situations and problems with social cues and judgment. These people can care for themselves, but might need more instruction and support than the typical person. Many can live in independent situations, but some still need the support of a group home. About
10 percent

of those with intellectual disabilities fall into the moderate category.
Only about
3 or 4 percent
of those diagnosed with intellectual disability fall into the severe category. These people can only communicate on the most basic levels. They cannot perform all self-care activities independently and need daily supervision and support. Most people in this category cannot successfully live an independent life and will need to live in a group home setting.
People with profound intellectual disability require round-the-clock support and care. They depend on others for all aspects of day-to-day life and have extremely limited communication ability. Frequently, people in this category have other physical limitations as well. About
1 to 2 percent
of people with intellectual disabilities fall into this category.
The two characteristics shared in varying degrees by all individuals with intellectual disabilities are limitations in intellectual functioning and limitations in adaptive behavior. Limitations in intellectual functioning often include difficulties with memory recall, task and skill generalization, and these students may demonstrate a tendency towards low motivation and learned helplessness. Issues in adaptive behavior may include difficulties with conceptual skills, social skills and practical skills. Individuals with intellectual disabilities also often exhibit deficits in self-determination skills as well, including skill areas such as choice making, problem solving, and goal setting.

In Closing...
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale--for individuals from birth to 18 years.
The Use of Technology
2. Instruction in Real-Life Setting with Real Materials
Robot-Assisted Instruction
3. Service Delivery Models

Designating General Education Peers
Best Buddies College Program
5 Domains
1. Communication
2. Daily living skills
3. Socialization
Interpersonal Relationship
Play and Leisure Time
Coping Skills
4. Motor Skills
Gross Motor
Fine Motor

5. Maladaptive Behavior
Critical Items
Adaptive Behavior Composite
2. Assessment of Quality of Life
3. Testing Accommodations and Alternate Assessment
Quality of Life Questionnaire
Five Factors:
Social belonging
Modifications in Scheduling
Presentation Format
Response Format
Alternate Assessment
Direct observation of specific behaviors
rating scales
curriculum-based measures
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics from text
Working Memory
- Being engaged with a mental task while at the same time trying to keep information accessible.
- The ability for a person to control their own conduct.
- Knowledge of which strategies can be used for a particular task and being able to judge if the approach is effective.
- Have a tendency to search for external instead of internal motivation because of familiarity with failure.
- They are more likely to believe something in the absence of any evidence (more prevalent in higher IQ subjects.)
ORCAJO, W., & Hallahan, D. (n.d.). (T) Exceptional Learners 12th ed (12th ed.).
ORCAJO, W., & Hallahan, D. (n.d.). (T) Exceptional Learners 12th ed (12th ed.).
A Strong Message to Start....
These result from abnormalities of genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or from other disorders of the genes caused during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors. There are many genetic diseases associated with intellectual disability. Some examples include
PKU (phenylketonuria)
, a single gene disorder. Due to a missing or defective enzyme, children with PKU cannot process a part of a protein called phenylalanine. Without treatment, phenylalanine builds up in the blood and causes intellectual disability.
Down syndrome
is an example of a chromosomal disorder. Chromosomal disorders happen sporadically and are caused by too many or too few chromosomes, or by a change in structure of a chromosome.
Fragile X syndrome
is a single gene disorder located on the X chromosome and is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability.
Problems During Pregnancy
Use of alcohol or drugs by the pregnant mother can cause intellectual disability. In fact,
alcohol is known to be the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability
. Recent research has implicated smoking in increasing the risk of intellectual disability. Other risks include malnutrition, certain environmental toxins, and illnesses of the mother during pregnancy, such as
Problems at Birth
Prematurity and low birth weight predict serious problems more often than any other conditions. Difficulties in the birth process such as temporary oxygen deprivation or birth injuries may cause intellectual disabilities.
Problems After Birth
Childhood diseases such as
whooping cough
chicken pox
, and
Hib disease
that may lead to
can damage the brain, as can injuries such as a
blow to the head
near drowning
and other environmental toxins can cause irreparable damage to the brain and nervous system.
Poverty and cultural deprivation
Children growing up in poverty are at higher risk for malnutrition, childhood diseases, exposure to environmental health hazards and often receive inadequate health care. These factors increase the risk of intellectual disability. Also, children in disadvantaged areas may be deprived of many common cultural and educational experiences provided to other youngsters. Research suggests that such under-stimulation can result in irreversible damage and can serve as a cause of intellectual disability.
Genetic Conditions

An estimated 4.6 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability (Larson, 2000). Prevalence studies may not identify all people with intellectual disabilities. Many school age children receive a diagnosis of learning disability, developmental delay, behavior disorder, or autism instead of intellectual disability.
While among adults, the rates vary between 3-6/1000, among children the rates are between 3-14/1000. Especially among children the rates vary a lot depending on diagnostic systems, the age of the child, and source of the administrative data. For example, using clinical guidelines based on IQ would give higher estimates from those based on more comprehensive adaptive behavior and psychological assessments (King et al. 2009). Often children are identified only around the age of 10 years while at school, and diagnoses made earlier can vary due to developmental changes in early childhood. The reasons being that the pressures of school unmask below-average performances and deficits in adaptive behavior across different situations

Community Adjustment


Teaching Students with ID to use Personal Narrative in Text Messages
1. Emphasis on life skills.

- Money management, using public transportation, personal hygiene, housekeeping and organization of personal space, and good social skills to interact successfully with others in the community.
2. Community Residential Facilities (CRFs) versus supported living.
- Current trend is toward CRFs. Since the 1970s, the number of residents with intellectual disabilities living in CRFs has increased more than ten-fold. Individuals living in facilities of 16 or less has decreased more than three-fold.
More authorities now point to the
family as a critical factor
determining whether persons with intellectual disabilities will succeed in community adjustment and employment.
1. Sheltered workshops

- structured environment in which a person receives training and works with other workers with disabilities on jobs requiring relatively low skills
2. Supportive competitive employment
- provides jobs for at least minimum wage in integrated work settings where most of the workers are not disabled. Supported competitive employment offers on-going support in the work setting.
3. Customized Employment and self-employment
- based on an assessment of the individual's strengths, weaknesses, and interests
- emphasis is placed on profile of interests and skills
What Are the Causes of Intellectual Disability?
Adult Transitioning
Learned helplessness
Person-centered planning

- a vulnerability that develops from history of deficits in learning
- a form of transition planning that focusing more on the individual than on the family

Other research:
1. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, 2nd Edition

2. Knight, V. F., Spooner, F., Browder, D. M., Smith, B. R., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Using Systematic Instruction and Graphic Organizers to Teach Science Concepts to Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability. Focus On Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 28(2), 115-126. doi:10.1177/1088357612475301

3. Creech-Galloway, C., Collins, B. C., Knight, V., & Bausch, M. (2013). Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure with an iPad to Teach the Pythagorean Theorem to Adolescents with Moderate Intellectual Disability. Research & Practice For Persons With Severe Disabilities, 38(4), 222-232. doi:10.1177/154079691303800402

4. Pennington, R., Saadatzi, M. N., Welch, K. C., & Scott, R. (2014). Using Robot-Assisted Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Personal Narrative in Text Messages. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 29(4), 49-58.
5. http://www.bestbuddies.org/our-programs
The use of instructional prompts, consequences for performance , and strategies for the transfer of stimulus control.
1. ORCAJO, W., & Hallahan, D. (n.d.). (T) Exceptional Learners 12th ed (12th ed.).

2. How Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory Applies to Human Depression and Stress

3. Community Intergration or Community Exposure?

4. https://www.lds.org/topics/disability/list/intellectual-disability?lang=eng

Teacher start with instruction in the classroom and supplement it with instruction in real-life situation.
Research showed that class-wide peer tutoring is an effective technique for helping to integrate students with ID
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