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Psychotherapy ;)

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Dhyren Juanites

on 17 June 2013

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Transcript of Psychotherapy ;)

Topics addressed include balancing clients’ needs against your own needs, ways of making sound ethical decisions, educating clients about their rights, parameters of confidentiality, ethical concerns in counseling diverse client populations, ethical issues involving diagnosis, evidence based practice, and dealing with dual and multiple relationships.
Putting Clients’ Needs Before Your Own
Ethical Decision Making
A useful question to frequently ask yourself is this: " Whose needs are being met in this relationship, my client's or my own?"
Submitted to:
Professor Marybeth Miranda

Submitted by:
Delgado, Josselle Ann O.

The needed attention/service is beyond the competency of the counselor

Non-professional relationship has developed between client and counselor

Children with Special needs, like learning disabilities or pervasive developmental disorders, are best referred to developmental pediatricians or to respective associations and societies for autism, hyperactivity, dyslexia, Down Syndrome or the like.

If medical assistance is urgent, as in the case of a client who has suffered sudden weight loss, or has not been able to eat or sleep over an extend period of time, then the counselor can send the patient to the emergency room of a hospital, in the absence of a known medical consultant, and with the consent of the parent/s or guardian.

8. The counselor follows up to ensure that the referred party gets the assistance needed.

6. The counselor and the client have agreed about the information that can be revealed to the external consultant

5. The external consultant knows what the referral is for and has accepted the referral

4. The client has agreed to the referral and its terms

2. The counselor knows the specific area of concern requiring the referral.

1. The Counselor has a valid reason for deciding on a referral.

Specialized attention is needed by the client

The counselor is no longer available

2. The client believes he/ she cannot work with the counselor

1. The counselor believes that he/ she cannot be objective with the client

Speech Therapist/Pathologists for those people who are not able to speak well.
If the Problem is not physical, a speech school may be sufficient.

Legal Attention is needed ( physically ans sexually abused, wrongfully accused, annulment or fighting for custody) Lawyers who specialize in the legal issues or psychologists as expert witnesses.

Religious Organizations offer counseling services who use biblical or spiritual approach to counseling
Ligaya ng Panginoon
Bukas Loob sa Diyos
Victory Christian Fellowship
Seven Hundred Club
Immanuel Charismatic Community

If Spiritual-moral are in question, it would be best to course the client to priest, pastors, or nuns.

If medical dental is needed, the counselor can coordinate with the medical-dental staff of the institution, who can verify the need or render the assistance needed.


Positive ethics is an approach taken by practitioners who want to do their best for clients rather than simply meet minimum standards to stay out of trouble

-----> Referral is usually understood as the action taken by persons within the institution who see that a particular person needs counselor assistance.

Nature and purpose

11. The counselor does not charge for referral

10. The counselor does not interfere with the work of the external consultant

9. The counselor gives feedback to and receives feedback from the external consultant regarding the progress of the client so that intervention can target what needs attention

7. The counselor introduces the referred party to the external consultant

3. The counselor is familiar with:
Where services are available
What services are available
Who renders them
How much the services would cost
The credentials of the external consultant

HIV-AIDS counseling
-------> the person with AIDS may bring with it a lot of psychological issues related to stigma, rejection, imminent death. They need someone specifically trained to handle those issues.
they may led to a medical doctor or support organization which can assist in diagnosis and intervention.

Families with a member suspected of drug abuse may be referred to reputable hospitals which conduct drug testing.
Refuses to be confined Outpatient treatment
The counselor must also be familiar with rehabilitation centers.

Aspirational ethics is a higher level
of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interests of clients. Ethics is more than a list of things to avoid for fear of being punished. Ethics is a way of thinking about becoming the best practitioner possible.

Mandatory ethics is the view of ethical practice that deals with the
minimum level of professional practice


Ethical Considerations

There are Circumstances that may call for a referral:

Circumstances Under Which Referral May Take Place

Neurological disorders Neurologist
Occupational Therapist also helpful for those with a developmental or learning disorders.

Mandatory ethics
is the view of ethical practice that deals with the minimum level of professional practice.
Aspirational ethics
is a higher level of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interests of clients.

Ethics is more than a list of things to avoid for fear of being punished.
Ethics is a way of thinking about becoming the best practitioner possible.
Positive ethics

is an approach taken by practitioners who want to do their best for clients rather than simply meet minimum standards to stay out of trouble.
The Role of Ethics Codes as a Catalyst for Improving Practice
The Right of Informed Consent
Ethical Issues in the Assessment Process
is the analysis and explanation of a client’s problems. It may include an explanation of the causes of the client’s difficulties, an account of how these problems developed over time, a classification of any disorders, a specification of preferred treatment procedure, and an estimate of the chances for a successful resolution.
If we are aware of our personal problems and are willing to work through them, there is less chance that we will project them onto clients.
Part of the process of making ethical decisions involves learning about the resources from which you can draw when you are dealing with an ethical question.
Educate counseling practitioners and the general public about the responsibilities of the profession.
Some Steps in Making Ethical Decisions
Identify the problem or dilemma.
Identify the potential issues.
Look at the relevant ethics codes for general guidance on the matter.
Consider the applicable laws and regulations
Seek consultation from more than one source.
Brainstorm various possible courses of action.
Enumerate the consequences of various decisions.
Decide on what appears to be the best possible course of action.
Informed Consent
involves the right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it.
The challenge of fulfilling the spirit of informed consent is to strike a balance between giving clients too much information and giving them too little.

It is a good idea that a client must have the basic information about the therapy.

Dimensions of Confidentiality
Confidentiality is an ethical concept, and in most states the legal duty of therapists to not disclose information about a client.
Privileged Communication is a legal concept that generally bars the disclosure of confidential communications in a legal proceeding.
It is also a central in developing a trusting and productive client therapist relationship.
Legal Requirement to break confidentiality in cases involving:

Child Abuse
Abuse of the elderly
Abuse of dependent adults
Danger to self and Others
The Role of Assessment and Diagnosis in Counseling
consists of evaluating the relevant factors in a client’s life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process.

which is sometimes part of the assessment process, consists of identifying a specific mental disorder based on a pattern of symptoms that leads to a specific diagnosis.
THe Value of Evidence-Based Practice
Practice-based evidence
involves using data generated during treatment to inform the process and outcome
of treatment.

Mental health practitioners must choose the best therapeutic approach or interventions with a particular client.
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)

is to require psychotherapists to base their practice on techniques that have empirical evidence to support their efficacy.
Some examples of nonsexual dual or multiple relationships are:

DUal and Multiple Relationships in Counseling Practice
The revised edition of the ACA Code of Ethics (ACA, 2005) stresses that counseling professionals must learn how to manage multiple roles and responsibilities in an ethical way.
Dual or multiple relationships
, either sexual or nonsexual, occur when counselors assume two (or more) roles simultaneously or sequentially with a client.
The term multiple relationship is more often used than the term dual relationship because of the complexities involved in these relationships.
combining the roles of teacher and therapist or of supervisor and therapist;
bartering for goods or therapeutic services;
borrowing money from a client;
providing therapy to a friend, an employee, or a relative;
engaging in a social relationship with a client;
accepting an expensive gift from a client;
going into a business venture with a client
Some multiple relationships are clearly exploitative and do serious harm both to the client and to the professional.

For example, becoming emotionally or sexually involved with a current client is clearly
unethical, unprofessional, and illegal.

Sexual involvement with a former client is unwise, can be exploitative, and is generally considered unethical.
Set healthy boundaries early in therapeutic relationship.
Discuss with your clients what you expect of them and what they can expect of you.
Consult with fellow professionals --- you don't need to make decision alone.
When dual relationships are potentially problematic,document the risk.
Self-monitoring is critical throughout the process. Ask yourself whose needs are being met and examine your motivations for considering becoming involved in a dual or multiple relationship.

By: Juanites, Dhyren
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