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Timeline Art History
Transcript of Timeline Art History
Bonaventura Berlinghieri (1235) "Saint Francis Altarpiece"
This piece holds the most for Byzantine style, meaning it's religious, the background is gold leafing ( what most artist started with as the time) and layers upon layers are applied.. The cloak he wears was popular for the Franciscan Order. The angels on either side of him suggest evidence of that Order as well. Each of these six panels on either side of him, show the events of his life as well. Cimabue (1280-1290) "Virgin and Child"
This is a lovely Byzantine icon, strongly by the tilt of the head and the placement of the figures. Also her thoughtful gaze and soft forms mold with the light and shade. 1300s-1325 1350-1375 1400-1425 1450-1475 1500-1525 1550-1575 This is an example of gold leafing what the artist usually started with. Giotto Di Bondone (1310) "Virgin and Child Enthroned." Like his father he found love for this subject. Unlike his father he is the first to draw from real life. He also closed the angel's wings. Duccio Di Buoninesgna (1308-1311) "Virgin and Child in Majesty"
This large 7 by 13.5 ft. piece had to be painted on both sides, as it was to be seen from both sides. Duccio combined a soft Byzantine figure style with soft lines. He shows us the weight of each figure as well. From the 1200's to the 1500's where three top movements in art history. Gothic, Classical, and Byzantine. The one with the most impact was classical. Classical could fit in painting and sculptures whereas the other two where mainly seen in architecture. In order for a sculpture to be classical, for example, the figure is usually in a realistic pose. When looking at the figure it is easy to see what the body is doing. In a painting, it was all about trying to create a sense of space using highlights and darks. Byzantine also helps to look at a painting. To be byzantine, the painting is usually religious. Layers and layers are used. The color green is first applied.
For example, the painting called, “Merode Altarpiece” by Robert Campin has many of these aspects. When the piece is open the first thing to be noted is the use of space. The middle part has the room and a point that disappears at the back. The highlights and show that the brighter, the closer, where as the darker the farther. That is the first part of classical. This painting is also showing the angel of God coming to Mary. That gives proof that it had byzantine in it as well. The last bit that shows classical is the vibrant colors. Mary stands out with the angel to draw our eye into the room and back to the back wall, showing the sense of space.
During this time there where two popes, in Rome and Avignon during the Great Schism (Kleiner,2010). Religious works where in hot demand. The use of oil-based pigment grew to be the large medium for painting.(Kleiner,2010). Only those, however, of high money or where the church could get there hands on an alter piece. Most of the art this time period was alter pieces, thus showing the movement in Classical art.
From 1500's to 1700's was classified as the high Renaissance. In this time, artists where now starting to broaden their horizon. Mannerism was coming to play, meaning it's characterized by the artists style. (cite) They studied perspective and depth, different ways of looking at things from afar or close up, and mainly to show the joy in human beauty and life's pleasures. A lot of the art still had a touch of classical to it. There was a slight shift away from just religious works.
The painting called, “Venus of Urbino” by Titian is a step away from the normal classical paintings. It shows a women nude in her bed chamber. There where small areas of symbolism, like the dog curled at the end meaning futility. This is the highlight to show the beauty in human life. The way she is reclining and the delicate features support that. There is a hint of classical, being the depth of space and colors. In the back the eye travles to two more figures,showing that space.
In this time, the main focus, especially in places like Italy, was the anatomy and perspective. The Venus painting show that perfectly, with her being nude in a room with depth.
From the 1700's to the 1900's came Realism. This movement started in France at the time.(Kleiner,2010).This was also the time that science was increasing. This means that artists focused one everyday events and things that could be seen. They disapproved of old historical or fictional thing, because they where not relevant to the present or could not be seen(Kleiner,2010).
Gustave Courbet's “Stone Breakers” is only the beginning but also the climax. The title explains much. The figures appear to be father and son, on a hard day's work. This is something the would have been seen and done everyday, making it “real”.
He presented this work to one of the salons. It was however greatly rejected. The salons consisted of upper class people with a lot of money. Gustave sort of slaps them in the face asking, “What do you do to make your living?” He placed an emphasis that they sat back and did nothing while those below work hard daily. The upper class didn’t want to be reminded of that so they rejected it.
Art today still holds some of these movements. Things like classical will always be around, because it was the building blocks of art. As time goes on, more movements will occur creating a large art history world. Lorenzo Maitani (1310) "Facade"
Maitani used a lot of Gothic and Byzantine on this beautiful church. The most exciting and eye-catching part is its golden frontage, which is decorated by large bas-reliefs and statues. The bas-reliefs are decorated with stories of the Old Testament. Pietro Lorenzetti ( 1342) "Birth of the Virgin"
This work is important because we are finally show a strong sense of space, which Pietro was very intrested in. He tries to render the sene with believable depth, by continuing past the bed of the Virgin past the marble stone that divides the picture. Milan Cathedral (1386)
If buildings could speak, this one would scream Gothic. The butresses and arches pointing to the sky in numbers dominate the view. This was completed in 1965, but started in 1386. The scene, France and England. Home to the best works of art known. This was the era that art really changed. Vivid colors, figures that looked so real and movable, light, depth, space, all increase widely. Renaissance, or rebirth, of art, philosphy and politics have the biggest part to play. As the time goes, artists throw there own ideas on canvas. Jan and Hubert Van Eyck (1434) "Ghent Altarpiece"
Oil with glazes on wood make these vibrant colors. They built this transparent layers. The man in the middle is God with Mary to the left and John the Baptist. The colors are vivid and the folds in the fabric become very known. This was actually his first piece. Robert Campin (1425-1428) " Merode Altarpiece"
To introduce our dramatic change would be this piece. Symbolisum come into play with a few common household objects. Van Eyck (1434) "Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife"
Talk about symbolize, this piece is full of it. The colors become rich as well as the texture becomes more prominent. Petrus Christas (1449) " A Goldsmith in his Shop"
As time goes on more and more symbolize appears in art. We start to see more reflections like the mirror on the table. As we saw, Van Eyck has a mirror in his peice. Is there something about God having his watchful eye in every piece in this time era? Hugo Van Der Goes (1476) "Portinarl Altarpiece"
Hugo was commission to add Tommaso and his family, consisting of his wife and three children. Jean Fouguet (1450) "Etienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen"
The saints are in heavy, and richly colored robes. The legend says that Stephan was stoned to death for his beliefs. That is what the stone symbolizes on his Gospel book. A trickle of blood can be seen on his head. Da Vinch (1503-1505) "Mona Lisa"
One of the most famous works of art. Well why her? What is so special about this? Could it be Da Vinchi never actually gave to piece to who it was meant for? Or perhaps her gaze is not directed to us that makes her smiled so thoughtful? He created the key movement of the Renaissance movements. We call it the Last Super. Raphael (1509-1511) "School of Athens"
Quickly becoming a success in Florence, Raphael played with large pieces, such as this one. Not only is there small hints of classical, for example the depth of space, there is movement in everything and it is all directed to the center two fingers, Aristotle and Plato. Michelangelo (1536-1541) "Last Judgment"
48 ft high. When we saw movement in the art in the 1200's, it was very subtle. Now Michelangelo throws this at us. The bottom left behind this text shows the angels ripping out the souls from the ground to be juged, and on the right those who could not be saved where condemed to hell. Hans Holbein the Younger (1533) 1600-1625 1650-1675
Nicola Pisano (1259-1260) "Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds"
This is considered one of his masterworks, he succeeded in making a mix of the French Gothic style with the Classical style of ancient Rome. His figures are closley packed together and heavy looking. Note the crisp edges in the folds of the fabric. His son, Giovanni will show us softer tones. 1250 to 1275 The lilies mean Mary's virginity and the white towel shows her purity. The lone lit candle and the mirror mean God's watchful eye at this marriage. The wife is close to the bedchamber showing her role as a female. While Giovanni stand by the window, ready to go out to work. The red coral and the snakes tongue usually helped to ward off evil. His wife Maria and their daughter are presented by Mary Magdalen and Margret Him and his sons are presented by the saints Thomas and Anthony. (1451) "Virgin and Child"
It is said that the virgins face is the same likeness as the king's much love mistress. Jean shows his own ideas when depicting the virgin and child. In the past times we saw holy, golden pieces, where the virgin was always clothed. As we move to the 1500's we start to see movements from Renaissance to Neoclassicism, to Romanticism. Neoclassicism means inspiration was drawn from classical art that we saw earlier. Romanticism means inspiration from emotion and a lot of it. There is still a lot of Byzantine, with the art being religious. Italy had all the fun in those movements. Bronzino (1540) " Allegory with Venus and Cupid"
Probubly ong of the most strange pieces during this time would be this. There are heavy hints of it being erotic, considering Cupid is Venus's son. Some think this should have been called, "Venus Disarming Cupid" for the arrow she holds above him. Prehaps this tells us of the impossibility of constant love. Or even an allegory on sin. Tintoretto (1592-94) "Last Supper
Very different from Da Vinchi's, we see the vanishing point not behind Christ's head but plunge dramatically into the distance. The figures move, it seems, at a quick pace. So instead of a serene moment it feels chaotic. he did however pick up the halo again, where Da Vinchi dropped it, making it slightly more classical. El Greco (1586) "Burial of Count Orgaz"
We have not yet seen space divided in half. But that is what Greco does. He separates heaven from the mortal world, yet still allows them to be connected though the pope. We start to see a technique that another artist will highly use thought his career, the use of light and allowing the faces to come from the dark. Caravaggio (1602-03) "Entombment of Christ"
This artist was famous for his distaste in coping the masters. He claimed he only painted the real and ungly of things, how life really was to him. He always started with a black background and sort of brought his figures from darkness. The light source was usually coming from one direction. This painting is considered counter refermasion, meaning, there where many political, spiritual and religous movements. Rembrandt van Rijin (1632) " The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp" This is a piece where we start to see the artists own ideas coming to life. Rembrandt used his own ideas of science and humanistic interests. We have a doctor teaching anatomy on a cadaver on the table in the middle. There is also, closer to the viewer, a book opened up to the event. It is belived that the book is actually a copy of Andreas Vesalius's study of anatomy published in Basel in 1543. Diego Velazquez (1619) "Water Carrier of Seville"
Diego spent much of his time studing from life. He study the textures and surfaces of ceramic pots that where the usual among folk art. The man in the painting was a well known water carrier. Diego impresses, with the heavy wool of the coat and the reflection of the pot's surface. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1645-52) "Saint Teresa of Avila Ecstasy "
One of the most controversial sculptures made, show and angel piercing her body repeatedly with an arrow, in both pain and religious ecstasy. The thing most noted it the folds in the fabric show the sense of her body swooning even though her hands, face and feet are the only thing visible. It was an unusual piece at the time it was made. Jules Hardouin and Charles Le Brun (1678) "Versailles, Hall of Mirrors"
The hall is 240 feet long, and 47 feet high. They lined the interior with Venetian glass mirrors about the same size and shape as the windows, to create and evel larger sense of space. Romanticism was a major movement that shaped modern views of art, literature, and music. It was at its height between 1798 and 1830. It occurred first in art and literature and later in music. These styles had been revived in the 1600's and 1700's as neoclassicism. Neoclassicists placed great importance on the power of reason as a way of discovering truth. That is why the neoclassical era is often called the Age of Reason. The romantics, hoped to transform the world into a new Golden Age through the power of the imagination. Jean-Antonie Watteau (1717) "Pilgrimage to the island of Cythera" 1700-1725 1750-1775 William Hogarth( 1743-45) "Marriage Contract" Angelica Kauffmann (1785) "Cornelia Mother of the Gracchi" Jacques Louis David (1793) "Death of Marat" Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres(1814) "Large Odalisque" Gericault(1818-19)
"Raft of the Medusa" Eugene Delacroix(1830) "Liberty Leading the People" 1800-1825 1850-1875 James Abbott McNeill Whistler(1875) "Nocturne" Gustave Courbet (1849)"Stone Breakers" Le Dejeuner(1863) "Sur L'herbe"