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Unit 3 Romanticism Sarah, AJ, Alana, Emma
Transcript of Unit 3 Romanticism Sarah, AJ, Alana, Emma
An artistic movement that originated in Europe and swept through the United States, following the turn of the century.
Explored the mysteries of nature
Explored the inner self
Elevated the imagination over reason
Used intuition rather than fact
Explored the relationship between nature and the human imagination
Focused on American themes and the history of the young nation
The country was expanding west
The eastern cities were growing
The country was industrializing
This period was defined by two different styles. These were
The settings are usually bleak and remote places
The plots usually consist of dark and violent incidents
The characters are usually in psychological and/or physical torment
A supernatural or otherworldly element is often present
Edgar Allan Poe
Son of impoverished traveling actors
His father abandoned the family shortly after he was born
His mother died a year later
Taken in by a wealthy Virginia family
Paid for his education until he was forced to drop out of school
. . .
He published his first volume of poetry after he joined the army
He suffered from depression and madness
Two years after his wife died he died in Baltimore, alone and unhappy
The Fall of the House of Usher
The story takes place on a, "Dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year."
The narrator went to the house to revisit an old childhood friend that wrote him a letter. The friend was mentally and physically unstable. Over the duration of his stay Lady Madeline dies and Usher's insanity intensifies, and he buries his sister in the tombs of the home. That night as a storm was passing, Usher and the narrator were uneasy, so the narrator read to Usher to pass the time. They began to hear noises, and Usher admited that Madeline was burried alive. Usher completely lost his sanity.
Gothic stories are set in bleak or remote places. This is one of the main characteristics of gothic style writing.
Gothic plots usually contain violent, gruesome, and horrifying events that catapult the characters into mental and physical torment.
"Not hear it? -- yes, I hear it. Long -- long -- long -- many minutes, many hours, many days, have I heard it -- yet I dared not -- oh, pity me, miserable wretch that I am! -- I
not -- I dared not -- I dared not speak!
We have put her living in the tomb!
" -- Usher
"While I gazed, this fissure rapidly widened -- there came a fierce breath of the whirlwind -- the entire orb of the satellite burst at once upon my sight -- my brain reeled as I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder -- there was a long tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousand waters -- and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the 'House of Usher.'"
The Gothic characters were commonly unstable on a mental and emotional standard.
A supernatural or otherworldly element is often present in Gothic stories.
Single Effect - A specific emotional effect that is purposefully imposed on a reader.
Poe uses dark imagery to create the feeling of fear and discomfort.
What is it?
Hawthorne found it impossible to adopt an optimistic view of the world during the time that many could.
He was described as an anti-transcendentalist.
He was born and raised in a Puritan lifestyle.
He married and moved to Concord where he spent some time with Emerson and Thoreau, but their different spiritual philosophies stopped them from having a deep friendship.
He died in his sleep, leaving four unfinished novels.
The Minister's Black Veil
Set in the 1600's in a typical Puritan village in New England. Puritans believed that only certain people were destined by God to go to Heaven. They believed that evil forces, which contributed to the Salem Witchcraft Trials, controlled people who behaved unusually. In this story, Hawthorne describes how these attitudes led to more commonplace acts of cruelty.
Gothic stories are set in bleak or remote places.
The plot of the story is based upon the town's minister, Mr. Hooper, whom seriously starts wearing a black veil that brings terror to people who are around him. We are unaware, although can infer, the reason Mr. Hooper wears the veil, but he refuses to remove it. He faces multiple unpleasant situations because of the mysterious black veil.
"If I hide my face for sorrow, there is cause enough, and if I cover it for secret sin, what mortal might not do the same?" Mr. Hooper is struggling with himself over an unknown issue. An issue that can arguably be driving him, and the people around him, mad.
The plot involves macabre or violent incidents.
Characters are in psychological and/or physical torment.
"Never! On Earth, Never!" Mr. Hooper made it known that he would not take the veil off his face while he was present on Earth. By saying this he implies life after death.
A supernatural or otherworldly element is often present.
What are they?
Parable -- A simple, usually brief, story that teaches a moral lesson.
Hawthorne uses the story to portray the basic lesson of not judging people based on appearance or unknown struggles.
Allegory -- A parable is a type of allegory--a story with both literal and symbolic meaning.
Transcendentalists believed that Humanity, God, and Nature were all intertwined and were part of a larger "Over Soul." An Over Soul is a universal spirit that all beings return to after death.
They relied on intuition rather than faith to discover deeper truths about the universe.
They believed that humans and nature are all a part of God's mind.
They believed that the individual was the center of the universe and a powerful force.
Nature was an important component of Transcendentalism.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Emerson lived between 1803-1882 and throughout his whole life his mind was constantly in motion, generating new ideas and defining and refining his view of the world.
His ideas were considered controversial, but had an extreme influence on young people of his time including Thoreau.
His mother encouraged his independent thinking, and at 14 Emerson entered Harvard where he began his life-long journal.
Emerson had a short-lived career as a minister, married a few times, and then he became a widely sought lecturer throughout the nation.
His talks attracted people of many ages and social classes.
Emerson's essays and poems expressed his beliefs in individuality, and in humanity's spiritual connection to nature
Henry David Thoreau
Thoreau attended Concord Academy, then five years later he enrolled in Harvard where he pursued his unique style.
He walked through life making his own rules and questioning rules presented to him.
He moved in with Emerson for two years doing odd jobs to pay his room and board.
While he was there, he became fascinated by Emerson's Transcendentalist beliefs.
He began simplifying his needs and devoted his life to exploring the spiritual between humanity and nature, and supporting his political and social beliefs.
He built a cabin at Walden Pond outside of Concord where, as we know, he wrote Walden.
His reputation has grown, even since his death.
His work has inspired generations and made readers aware of the possibilities of the human spirit and limitations of society.
Walt was the link between Transcendentalism and Realism.
His poems were usually constructed of a free-verse nature after his transition to a more organic standpoint.
His work "Young Grimes" featured in his second edition of
Leaves of Grass
most clearly shows this transition.
Walt was born into a farm lifestyle. From there he took on jobs in the literary field and changed positions many times.
His experiences from all the different jobs were noticable in his works. His volunteer work in Washington hospital was the most notable.
He had a stern tone with his readers and a high admeration for literature.
"In the woods is perpetual youth."
Emerson describes himself as a "transparent eyeball" that sees all.
Emerson believed that lasting youth can come from nature. In other words, he is expressing the natural relief of nature. Additionally, we can also see here that he is referring to the constant growth and "birth" of new components of nature. Transcendentalists believed in the power that nature possessed over the universe.
Transcendentalists believed that humans, nature, and God are all one with each other.
Thoreau spent his time in the woods reflecting every day he humbled his way of living and searched for the deeper meaning of life. "Direct your eye right in word, and you'll find a thousand regions in your mind yet undiscovered. Travel then. . ."
"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die discovery that I had not lived." Thoreau decided to go to the woods and live according to this idea that Emerson had put in place.
Human senses are limited; they convey knowledge of the physical world, but deeper truths can be grasped only through intuition.
The observation of nature illustrates the nature of human beings.
"I may be affected by a theatrical exhibition; on the other hand, I may not be affected by an actual event which appears to concern me much more. I only know myself as a human entity; the scene, so to speak, of thoughts and affections . . ."
God, nature, and humanity are united in a shared universal soul, or over-soul.
When Lilacs last in the Dooryard Bloomed
"When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomed" is composed of three separate poems. One follows the progress of Lincoln's coffin on its way to the president's burial. The second Journey is with the poet and his lilacs, meant to be laid on the coffin in tribute, as he writes about death and mourning. The third uses the symbols of a bird and a star to develop an idea of a nature sympathetic yet separate from humanity. Walt uses a star, bird, death, and lilacs to illustrate that God, nature, and humanity are united in a shared universal soul.
I Hear America Singing
Walt hears "varied carols" of the Americans. Each one sings about what makes each of them individual. The poem gives an overwhelming sense of pride and clearly shows Walt's love of America.
What are they?
Free Verse - Is poetry that has an irregular meter and line length (not likely to rhyme).
Diction - Word choice and arrangement.
Parallelism - The repetition of phrases or sentences with similar structures or meanings.
1. What are the main characteristics of Romanticism?
2. What is the difference between Gothic and Transcendentalism?
3. Whitman was the bridge between ________ and ________.
4.What poetic style was Whitman known for?
5. What is the relationship between a Parable and an Allegory?
"I learned this, at least, by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with his success unexpected in common hours."
Thanks, Fred for an inspiring year!!!
Explored the mysteries of nature, inner self,
and the relationship between nature and the human imagination. Elevated the imagination over reason and Focused on American themes and the history of the young nation.
Gothic focuses more on the supernatural and dark and violent incidents, while Transcendentalism focuses on the connection between God, humans, and nature.
Whitman was the bridge between Transcendentalism and Realism.
A parable is a type of allegory, which is a story with both literal and symbolic meaning. A Parable is a simple, usually brief, story that teaches a moral lesson.