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Human Parasites

Description of different kinds of parasites.
by

Trey Chenong

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of Human Parasites

Human Parasites
By: Trey Chenong, Rachel Edler, and Jordan Lee.
Water
Parasites

Insect
Parasites
LOA LOA WORM
<--
Human Botfly
FOOD PARASITES
Found in European water supplies and in some HIV Positive people.
Cryptosporidium
<--
Guinea Worms
TOXOPLASMOSIS
OR TOXOPLASM INFECTION.
This is hard to find
because there are usually
little or no symptoms. This
is mostly found in infants.
Elephantiasis
Naegleria
Is a brain eating parasite found in water. (usually lakes or tap water.)
LIFE CYCLE
AND TREATMENT
Enters the body through tap or lake water
and enters the host when they drink
or submerge themselves in the water.
Will feed on the host for up to 12 days.
Syptoms are low grade fever and diarrhea.
Treatment options are to drink plenty of fluids or
see a doctor for special treatment.
Practicing good hygiene can help prevent this.
The Naegleria parasite has a more complex life cycle than most parasites. It will go through a cyst stage, a trophozoite stage, and a flagellate stage.
Cyst stage: This is the stage where the parasite is in search of food. It is usually found in unfavorable conditions, usually low temperatures.
Trophozoite stage: This is the reproductive stage in which the cyst will transform in temperatures from 25°C and grows fastest at around 42°C.
Flagellate stage: This transformation occurs usually in distilled water. Once in a host they will feed on tissue in the brain. This can kill you in as little as 3 days if not treated. A very early diagnosis is the only way to treat in using the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin. This is the best selling antibiotic in the world.
THIS HAS BEEN FOUND IN AN ILLINOIS LAKE POLLUTED BY COOLING WATERS OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.
LIFE CYCLE
Life cycle: This parasite is usually found in soil and in raw meat. When inside the human host, the parasite will undergo asexual reproduction. If a pregnant women gets this, it can cause the baby to be born with mental retardation. It will attach itself to the intestinal wall and will feed on it for a few weeks if your immune system is healthy. If your immune system is weakened by something, like AIDS, then you will need therapy.
Treatment: An anti-toxoplasm medication is the only way to treat it. This medication can take up to a year to fully eradicate this parasite.
ODD FACT: Of a study of 121 women is 1999, large majority of those who were toxoplasmosis-positive showed signs of higher intelligence and they were also more guilt prone.
LIFE CYCLE
AND TREATMENT
LIFE CYCLE AND TREATMENT:
This parasite in found in the vector fly of southern Africa and in some mule deer. It will land of an uninfected human host and its larvae will burrow into the human skin. When it reaches adulthood, it releases it offspring called Microfilariae which will spread to urine, the spinal fluid, and in blood in general. They can also be within the intestines and feed on it. The female can reach 5 inches long.
This can sometime be fatal but it is usually treatable. Invermectin is the most common treatment given one does orally. This treatment can take up to 12 years to reduce the risk of re-infection to 1%.
LOA LOA WORM
LIFE CYCLE AND TREATMENT
A botfly usually will attach its eggs to the underside of a mosquito in mid-flight. When the mosquito reaches the human host, the body temperature will cause the sticky glue that it holding the eggs to melt and the larvae will hatch once they touch the skin. The larvae will then burrow into the skin while leaving its backside open to breathe. It will feed on flesh for up to 6 weeks, reaching as long as 18 mm.
There is no medication for this. The only remedy is to cover the wound to suffocate the worm. Once it comes closer to the surface pull it out.
HUMAN BOTFLY
Hookworm
Hookworm
Life Style and Treatments
Life Cycle:Hookworms live in the small intestine of an infected person. Their eggs are passed through the person and if that person goes outside the eggs can be deposited in the soil. The eggs hatch and form larvae. The larvae mature and can then penetrate human skin. The hookworm releases an enzyme that breaks apart skin cells letting the worm burrow freely.
Treatment: Most people have no symptoms so it's hard to know if you're infected. Medications such as albendazole, mebendazole, or pyrantel pamoate are usually prescribed by your doctor.
Fact: 576-740 million people are infected with hookworm in the world.
Elephantiasis
This is caused by a mosquito that is infected with Wuchereria, Brugia malaya, or B. timori, which are parasitic worms.
Life Cycle: The microfilaria offspring of these worms are taken up by a mosquito. The mosquito will then inject it into the human host during a blood feast. These larvae will grow in the dermis layer of the skin. After about a year, they will grow into adults.
Treatment: There is no vaccine for this but rigorous cleaning or some anitbiotics can help to treat it.
cdc.gov
intelihealth.com
youtube.com
.idph.state.il.us
livescience.com
stanford.edu
humanillnesses.com
.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
chagasfound.org
who.int
SOURCES
Over 120 million
people are currently
infected with
elephantiasis.
Life cycle: The guinea worm larvae swim freely in bodies of water. The guinea worm usually enters the body through an open wound. They can remain in the body for up to a year.
Guinea Worms
Treatment: You must pull the worm out through the wound from which it entered. A popular method is wrapping it around a small stick as you are pulling it out.
Prevention: Covering of all wounds when entering water. Also the drinking of clean water will prevent this.
This is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. It is found in mainly Latin America. Its related to a trypanosome that causes sleeping sickness. It is spread through insect vectors.
The parasite can only enter the skin through scratching the bite area or touching feces and then touching your mouth or eyes. When inside, this parasite feeds on the blood for about 2 months.
Treatment: Anti-parasitic treatment has been one of the leading medications for this disease
Chagas Disease
LIVER FLUKE
Life cycle- They are ingested by cows through the grass they eat. When a human eats undercooked meat, this flatworm will take host inside the human liver and will feed on the blood. It can stay in the body for an extended period of time if not treated.
Treatment: Very rigorous cleaning of your house and family members is usually necessary but some anti-parasitic medications may work in eradicating them.
LIVER FLUKE REMOVAL
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