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Soc Ch 8: Deviance and Control

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Hononegah Sociology

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of Soc Ch 8: Deviance and Control

Chapter 8
Deviance and Social Control
Deviance- any violation of rules or norms
the social reaction to the act is what makes it deviant
therefore, deviance is relative
all of us are deviants at some level

Crime- violation of rules that have been written into law
Before we examine deviance, we must first understand
Norms make social life possible by making behavior predictable

We are socialized to follow norms so that society functions smoothly

social order- a group's customary social arrangement
(deviance upsets order; that's why it's discouraged by society)

therefore, a society needs a method of social control
means of enforcing norms in order to encourage order

positive and negative sanctions; remember- the more seriously we take a norm, the stronger the sanction
Symbolic Interactionist
we learn deviance; different groups in our lives encourages either conformity or deviance
because of our various groups, we can often receive mixed messages
deviant parents often have deviant children...that's why i rarely call parents
how might socioeconomic status and real estate connect on this?

Control Theory
we have both inner control systems and outer control systems that work against deviance
inner control= morality; outer control=people and punishments
the stronger our bonds with society, the more effective inner controls are
how might underage drinking apply here?

Labeling Theory
most people resist negative labels
even if they engage in deviant acts, they don't want to be considered a deviant
denial of responsibility---"not my fault"
denial of injury---"no one got hurt"
denial of victim---"he deserved it"
condemn the judgement---"who are you to judge me?"
appeal to loyalties---"i swung to defend my friend"
deviance clarifies boundaries and affirms norms; punishment sends a message
deviance promotes social unity; we are all against this action
deviance promotes social change; we judge; therefore we consider the action

strain theory--if mainstream techniques aren't getting you anywhere, you feel wronged by the system; the rules, then, are illegitimate

4 Deviant Paths
innovators- accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to reach them
ritualism- survive by following rules but give up on getting ahead
retreatism- reject cultural goals and normed means of achieving them
rebellion-give society new goals (is this different than our typical meaning of rebel?)
Conflict Perspective
social inequality is the main characteristic of any society
the power elite make the rules (laws)
they create rules the protect their position
corporate crime is usually met with little penalty---Martha Stewart
those at the bottom of society are on the poverty line, the crimes they commit are for survival, yet they are more harshly punished

because the working class is larger in number, it has the power of revolution
laws are meant to oppress them specifically
The US Criminal Justice System
2,074 inmates are serving life sentences without parole for non violent crimes
Three Strikes Rule
guilty pleas resolve 97% of federal cases
mandatory minimum sentences deny courts the ability to judge justice based on the crime
the combination of plea deals and mandatory minimums gives prosecutors a huge amount of intimidation and power
ie- if you take this to trial you're looking at a mandatory minimum; take the deal
many prosecutors are looking for higher office, and are after a record that's tough on crime

the criminal justice system does not provide effective and meaningful rehabilitation for offenders to re-enter society
240,000 rapes occur each year in prison
the rate of violent crime has not significantly changed over the past 20 years, but the number of inmates has doubled
non-violent criminals learn violent behaviors in prison
2/3 of anti-drug funding goes toward law enforcement rather than preventative measures

the system relies on incarceration and lacks a variety of appropriate and more effective measures
after release, many offenders can't get housing, a job, a loan, nor are they allowed to vote; for some this contributes to recidivism
there is a severe lack of funding for community correctional supervision
poor offenders are assigned a public defender--usually underpaid and overworked--who can't do an effective job with each offender's care
major problems with:
Solutions: Brainstorm
Medicalization of Deviance
defining social or personal problems in medical terms
this is a moral dimension of medicine, where people were formerly blamed/punished are now irresponsible/treated
there exists degrees of medicalization

5 Step Sequential Model
behavior is deviant
defined in medical terms; a new diagnostic label is created; studies show how drugs modify the behavior
interested organizations (drug companies that can make $) emphasize the seriousness and size of the problem
medical manuals discuss it; treatment becomes widely available; institutions legitimize it

Trends in Medicalization
diagnoses in the DSM have increased 5 fold since it's original version
recent medicalized problems include: menopause, over eating, under eating, varying degrees of sexual activity, gambling, chronic fatigue, ODD
"engines of medicalizatoin" are considered to be consumers and drug companies
most sociologists view this trend negatively because it takes responsibility away from people and makes them passive victims in their own life
proponents argue that it reduces social stigma and encourages people to seek treatment (of any kind)
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