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Transcript of Egyptian Pyramids
By: Volodymyr Djoura
Why were the pyramids built?
Most pyramids were built to be tombs for Pharaohs.
The shape of the pyramid is meant to symbolize the falling rays of the sun.
There are over 130 pyramids that have been discovered in Egypt.
All Egyptian Pyramids are built West of the Nile River. The Egyptians believed that since the sun sets in the West, it is a symbol of life's end.
Map of a few Pyramids
Step Pyramid of Djoser
Step Pyramid of Djoser
The first pyramid ever built was the Step Pyramid of Djoser
Statue of Djoser
It was made by placing six
mastabas (tombs) of decreasing
size, atop one another.
It was built from approximately 2667 to 2648 BC under the leadership of the Pharaohs architect, Imhotep.
The path to a smooth sided pyramid
There were several failed attempts by the Pharaoh Sneferu (2600BC) to build a smooth sided pyramid.
The Meidum pyramid, which collapsed before it was completed.
The Bent Pyramid
At the time, it was the tallest man made building ever created.
This pyramid set the groundwork for the Great Pyramids of Giza to be built
The Great Pyramids of Giza
Were built in the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom by the Pharaoh Chefren.
The largest pyramid covers 13 acres and is made up of approximately 2.3 million blocks.
It became the tallest man made structure in the world for over 3800 years
The pyramids are one of the seven great wonders of the ancient world.
The Pyramids are guarded by the Great Sphinx.
The sphinx combines a human head with a body of a lion.
It demonstrated the pharaoh's power and divinity
It stands over 65 feet high.
You can look at a panoramic view of the pyramids at:
Inside the Pyramid
Pharaohs bodies were placed in a sarcophagus in the burial chamber. They were buried with many of their possessions including clothes, food, oil, even furniture.
Inside the pyramid
On some of the walls of the later pyramids, there are inscriptions on the walls of the burial chambers. They are believed to be spells to help aid the pharaohs journey to the afterlife.
Pyramid Texts in the tomb of the Pharaoh Unas
Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Tutankhaten
Once the pharaoh died, his body was preserved by mummification. The embalmers then removed all the moisture from the body, and then wrapped the body in linen. The mummy was then placed in a sarcophagus.
The Egyptians believed their pharaoh was related to their god Osiris, so the sarcophagus included many symbols related to him. These included the flail and crook, as seen above.
How were they built
One of the greatest facts about the pyramids is that they were all built by human labor.
Originally thought to have been built by slave labor, there is now research that the pyramids were built by skilled tradesman who were paid by the pharaoh.
How were they built
The pyramids were built from thousands of stone blocks that were quarried from nearby areas. The block of stone then had to be cut perfectly to be the right size.
The blocks were then put on a cart, and hauled up a ramp to a specified location.
The pyramids are one of the greatest architectural achievements of humans.
It is estimated that the Great Pyramid of Giza took about 20 years to construct, with over 100,000 people working on it.
By pouring water on the sand, friction was reduced, and the force needed to move the statue was reduced by up to 50%
Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture:
An Introduction to the Humanities
. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print
"Ancient Egypt: Burial Customs." Ancient Egypt: Burial Customs. http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/EGYPT/burial.html Web. 10 June 2014.
The third time was the charm, and the first smooth pyramid was built in 2590 BC.
"Egypt." National Geographic. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/djoser.html Web. 12 June 2014.
"The Pyramids of Giza." Discovering Egypt. http://www.discoveringegypt.com/pyramid3.htm Web. 10 June 2014.