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A Brief History of Architecture

Summarized history of architecture, for intro to the Eve of Destruction project

Amanda Pool

on 3 November 2012

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Transcript of A Brief History of Architecture

In the beginning... The earliest man-made structures were personal shelters made of on-hand materials. Stone dwellings appeared as humans developed a sedentary life style. Humans also began to build public buildings such as meeting halls, libraries, and temples, as well as monuments to their rulers and gods. You may have heard of the Wall of Jericho? Jericho is one of the first cities every built. Above is the archeological site of the wall, unearthed. Stonehenge is a megalithic monument built by druids in ancient Britain. The pyramids of Giza are possibly one to fht most well known early architectural monuments in the world. Pyramid of the Moon, Mexico Tikal, Guatemala Miamisburg Mound, Ohio Fun thought: The Egyptians were not the only civilization to build pyramids. Around the same time that the Pyramids were going up at Giza, the Mayans, Aztecs, and many other civilizations across the Americas and Asia were building pyramids as well. Romans excelled at engineering and design. As the Roman Empire grew, the Romans were able to obtain and update the architectural ideas of the nations like Greece and Egypt. Roman homes had running water and vented floors where cooled water or steam were channeled through to provide an early form of temperature control. The Roman Aqueduct is the engineering masterpiece which allowed for running water in this early society. The Pantheon's oculus allows for light to flow through the building. Aside from providing visual beauty, the oculus and coffers also act as stress relief mechanisms for the dome. You may have noticed what many of these great Roman structures are made of. The Romans invented modern contrete. They did not use support beams in these contrete structures, each was made using wooden molds. They were also the first civilization to achieve a rounded arch. There is evidence of both of these achievements in the construction of the Colosseum. Gothic Architecture The Romans The Roman Empire fell, and the Christian church rose to power. Rationale behind Gothic architecture is building up, to be closer to God and closer to Heaven. The defining features of Gothic architecture are -
High arched ceilings. The closer to Heaven, the better.
Flying buttresses, which are (often elaborately decorated) exterior support beams
and Rose windows. Rose windows feature stained glass narratives, often of the Virgin Mary. St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic Prague Castle, Prague, Czech Republic Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France Architecture throughout history has demonstrated the practical side to popular art styles. Frequently, new architecture styles have been influenced by conquered civilizations. Buildings are designed for specific purposes, and climates. i.e. buildings in areas which receive large amounts of rain or snow will have steep roofs, to prevent damage from the elements. British Colonial, India Bisbee, AZ Roman Revival Italian Victorian Spanish Mission British Colonial, Malaysia A revolutionary change came in 1899, when the Carson Pirie Scott Building went up in Chicago. This building, designed by Louis Sullican is considered to be the first skyscraper. It was built to 9 stories, using a support structure of steel beams and girders. Previously, buildings were limited by the structural strength of wood. This innovation quickly spread across the nation. Also working towards the early 20th century was a young architect named Frank Lloyd Wright. His use of natural materials that fit into the environment was considered revolutionary. One technique he used was cantilever, which is to counterbalance unsupported beams to give his buildings large open areas. He also did the interior decorating and planning for his buildings. He was most active in the 1930-50s. Working in Europe at the same time as Wright, was Le Corbusier and the architects of the Bauhaus movement. Affordable, utilitarian housing was a modern concept; their designs for modern living exercised the rule of that form follows function. Architects have returned to the Renaissance view of creating buildings as pieces of art while keeping them functional and comfortable. This combining of new materials with old design techniques is known as post-modern. However, not all modern design is "good" design. To be well designed in the post-modern style, a building must be both aesthetically pleasing, as well as functional, and practical. If a design aesthetic is forced on a building, it may result in a significant lack of practicality. Here are some examples of the Eve of Destruction project. Notice that all of the buildings and structures are commonly known, and easy to recognize. The Golden Gate Bridge The White House Big Ben Requirements: Must be an easily recognizable or iconic structure.
Use a ruler and compass to plan your building before drawing in the destructed features.
Coloring medium is open.
Finish lines with pen&ink.
Due 11/9
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