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American Civil War

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L Eaker

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of American Civil War

American Civil War Causes
By Eliana Diamond, Lauren Eaker, Sami Shapiro, Christina Talia
Technology
The North and The South
driven apart by new inventions

Westward Expansion
Failed Government Policies & Unsatisfactory Compromises
Immediate Cause
The Election of 1860 - Abraham Lincoln Becomes President

Reformers
Women's Rights
Abolitionists

American Civil War Causes
Women's Rights
Elizabeth Cady Stantionz & Lucretia Mott:
Energetic and outspoken reformers with the goal of human equality
Organized Women's Rights Convention on July 19th, 1848
Issued the statement, "all men and women are created equal"
demanded the right to vote
Abolitionists
Fredrick Douglas
Harriet Tubman & The Underground Railroad
William Lloyd Garrison
John Brown
Harriet Beacher Stowe; Uncle Tom's Cabin
Fredrick Douglas
Father of the Civil Right's Movement
Ability to read = key to freedom
passage of the motion to support female suffrage
previously a slave
served as an adviser to presidents
attended the Women's Rights Convention
Harriet Tubman & The Underground Railroad
escaped slavery herself
returned to slave-holding states and helped others escape
traveled through the underground railroad
19 trips to Maryland
Saved over 300 slaves
William Lloyd Garrison
Missouri Compromise
• Congress passed in 1820- after a whole year of debate
• Nothing more than a truce
• North vs. South
• Free Slave State vs. Slave State
• 36° 30’ latitude = Southern boundary of Missouri
• The Senate----> evenly divided slave and free states
• A slave state of Missouri----> tip the balance of power
o Maine = the new free slave state
• The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 overturned the Missouri Compromise
• Dred Scott v. Sanford case- Compromise unconstitutional


Protective Tariffs
The Nullification Controversy, Crisis, and Compromise
• The Nullification Controversy
o The Tariff---> Northern interests
o Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification
o “Null and void”- declare void, any federal law that the state considered unconstitutional
o Nullification- the rightful response to an unconstitutional act of Congress by the States
o South Carolina = resistance
• The Nullification Crisis
o Tariffs by force
• The Nullification Compromise
o Federal government---->lose image of control
o Henry Clay = Compromise Tariff of 1833
o South Carolina withdrew
o Tensions between the Federal government and State governments grew


The Compromise of 1850
• Proposed by Henry Clay and handled by Stephen Douglas
• Douglas broke the legislation into various pieces
o allowed northern and southern legislators to vote against just the parts they didn’t like
• The Compromise led to sectional harmony for several years
• California= new free state
• New Mexico and Utah territories----> popular sovereignty
• Slave trade was abolished District of Columbia
• Tough Fugitive Slave Act passed- required escaped slaves be returned
o Northerners----> civil disobedience
• $10 million
• Slave trade prohibited in Washington D.C.
• Pleased no one
• Repealed and replaced the Missouri Compromise


The Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Passed in 1854
• Popular Sovereignty- a vote of the people living in the territory, would determine whether a territory in the Mexican Cession was to be slave or free
o was unclear
• Bully Brooks
o Preston Brooks, Southern Congressman from South Carolina
o Physical violence
o More Tension between North vs. South
o Sumner = Abolitionist (meaning not in favor of slaves)
• Dred Scott Case
o Supreme Court case in 1857
o Question of slavery in the territories
o Ruling held the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
o Congress----> not deprive people of their right to property


Manifest Destiny
Belief that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent
Concept rooted in American cultural and racial superiority
Indian Removal Act
Started the abolitionist paper,
The Liberator
He helped form the New England Antislavery Society
blasted the Constitution as a pro-slavery document
Indians were "obstacles" preventing Americans from moving south
The North
John Brown
Andrew Jackson passed Indian Removal Act which gave President power to make treaties with Indians that forced them off of their land
Took part in the underground railroad
Gave land to free African Americans
Established the League of Gileadites
Believed in violence to end slavery
Led an unsuccessful raid
Life ended in execution
Harriet Beacher Stone
Leading congregationalist minister
achieved national fame for her anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin
Her novel fanned the flames of sectionalism before the war
The South
If Indians resisted they were forced off of their land
FARMING
The Cotton Gin
The Steel Tipped Plow
The Mechanical Reaper
Territorial Acquisitions
Louisiana Territory
Purchased from France
Lewis and Clark explored territory
Machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds
Much greater productivity than manual cotton separation
Led to the growth of slavery in the south
Florida
Gained after war with Mexico
Oregon
Acquired after signing treaty with Great Britain that set U.S border at 49th parallel
Mexican Cession
Won after second war with Mexico
Became part of Arizona and New Mexico
Gadsden Purchase
Bought lands south of the Gila River and Rio Grande
Westward Expansion
Issue of whether each new state is a slave or free state
Lead U.S closer to the Civil War
The Factory System
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Spinning Jenny
The Power Loom
Another agricultural invention that revolutionized farming
Made crop gathering much easier and faster because it was automatic
Horse-drawn farm implement to cut small grain crops

Made out of highly polished steel and a correctly shaped moldboard
Replaced the weak cast-iron plows
Ideal for the tough soil of the Midwest

Transportation
HOW AMERICA MOVED WESTWARD
A method of manufacturing where work was performed on a large scale in a single location
Used machinery, originally powered by water or steam and later by electricity
Use of unskilled labor, division of labor, centralization of factories and standardization of interchangeable parts

Multi-spindle spinning frame
Reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn


Erie Canal
Steam Locomotives
and Railroads
Telegraphs
steam powered, mechanically operated loom
Completely automatic
Sped up the weaving process
Made cloth production much more efficient and greatly benefited weaving.
364-mile long man-made waterway
flowed between Albany and Buffalo
Connected the eastern seaboard and the Old Northwest.
The Erie Canal's great success led to the development of the steamboat and a new and complete national water transportation network by 1840.

Railroads and steam locomotives were the first form of mechanical transportation in history
Goods were transported much more easily, faster and in larger quantities
Railroads dropped the cost of shipping by carriage down 60-70%

The first form of communication that could be sent from a great distance
Instantaneous messaging
Changed the way wars were fought
Connected people from around the world
Abraham, the Republican Party, won against 3 other candidates.
A total of 7 states seceded, starting with South Carolina.
Northern phenomenon; Final straw for Southerners
No trust for Lincoln as president
Full transcript