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Copy of Introduction to sociology and anthropology
Transcript of Copy of Introduction to sociology and anthropology
What does it have to do with me? What is real in life? What is science...library...e journals, data analysis, qualitative, quantitative research?
Why is sociological and anthropological research important to understand "real" life? Studying somewhere else, being someone else? Apprenticeship or University? Too many leaders, scientists? How do we remember? Our own learning approach Topics in class
Its your message What's sociology? Sociologists discussed changes in the society with the growth
of modern capitalism Evolution vs. Religion Sociology, Anthropology
The role of the state 21st century Assingment ....this class, the topics, the methods for your work, daily life, interest?
What topics do you want to discuss?
Turn in printed paper Bring magazines, brochures that you do not need anymore, scissors and glue Introduction to sociology and anthropology What is anthropology? Religion and its influence Hollywood messages Relate to my interests, my work Practice, creativity, the big picture What is anthropology? Anthropology is the study of humanity.
The term "anthropology", derives from the Greek, anthropos, "human", and logia, "discourse" or "study"
Anthropology's basic concerns are "What defines Homo sapiens?", "Who are the ancestors of modern Homo sapiens?", "What are humans' physical traits?", "How do humans behave?" "How has the evolutionary past of Homo sapiens influenced its social organization and culture?" and so forth. Sound messages Find the links There is nothing more central to political and social theory than the nature of the state, and nothing more contested Sociology, Anthropology
and culture Feminism Work Sociology Education Communication Technologies Science? How does Sociology influence us? How does the society influence us, our actions and thinking? If we understand sociology, we understand ourselves
...why we think, feel, act and decide the way we do Are we the master of our lives or what/who influences our decisions, behaviour, feelings? Most decisions we make are influenced by the society?
How do we choose what to study? Studying in a different country and... Economy Parents, friends, colleagues Society Educational Systems Government Social Network Culture Law Imagine you were born in the Republic of Sierra Leone (in Africa) or in the UK. How would your life be different? Life expectancy
42 years m Our behavior is determined by our surroundings and thus by the society we live in.
As Zygmunt Baumann says in his Sociological Thinking. We need to defaliiarize the familiar. Things are not what they seem. Sociology is part of a changing world.
Sociologists are part of what they study
Sociological knowledge becomes part of the society. Example crime rates The systematic study of society.
The term has two stems – the Latin socius (companionship) and the Greek logos (study of) – and literally means the study of the processes of companionship.
The sociologist is someone concerned with understanding society in a disciplined way.
The nature of this discipline is scientific.
(Peter Berger, Invitation to Sociology, 1993:27)
The science or study of the origin, history and constitutions of human society. (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary) Select your topic and day for your presentation
Topics and dates:
You will then get a guideline of questions that you need to consider in your presentation
Divide your work, discuss how you want to present it.
The essay needs to be turned in last day of regular class (May 26). See syllabus for further requirements Born in different societies... Characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals sharing a distinctive culture and institutions.
A body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical organization. UK?
double of this....
84 years 165 out of 1000 (16.5 percent) die shortly after born Only (5 out of 1000) 0.05 percent die shortly after they are born Only 1 in 50 go to University (no chance as a woman, 82 percent can not read or write) In the UK almost every other person has further eductation 13 television sets and 5 telephone lines per 1000 people 563 telephone lines and 950 TV sets
per 1000 people Sierra Leone Sierra Leone UK? Sierra Leone Sierra Leone UK? UK? What is a society? Imagine you were born 300 years ago.
How would your life be different from your daily life now?
max. 7 students per group
Note down your main ideas, discuss them with the class and turn them in Group work: Not have...
shops, shopping center
telephone, cameras, PCs, laptops, faxes, videos
Mc Donalds not be able to vote for a government
not be able to go to University
not be able to choose your religion Group work
Read p.10: "Benefits of the sociological perpective" and find an example for each perspective
20 - 30 minutes
Max. 7 people in a group Problems Born in different societies... The educational system in... Africa Finland Live in a small community
Not be able to travel anywhere, no planes, no holiday tours 300 years ago
you would... 300 years ago
you would... NO 300 years ago
you would... No Organization of presentation groups: Everything that you posess,
will posess you at some point We are interconnected.
Our judgement, feelings and behaviour is influenced by the society we live in.
Sociology: The study of the society Benefits of the sociological perspective
(See book page 10) The sociological perspective helps us to recognize human differences and human suffering and to confront the challenges of living in a diverse wolrd.
Encourages to see many ways of suffering that occur. Poverty, marital breakdown, illness, war and how such problems often arise because of the ways in which the societies are organized. The sociological perspective challenges “the taken for granted”.
The sociological perspective enables us to access both, the opportunities and the constrains that characterize our lives.
Card game. We decide how to play but society gives us the hand.
The more we understand the game the more effective players we will be.
The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society
Wright Mills claimed that developing what he called the “sociological imagination” would help people to become more active citizen because our problems are often linked to those of the society Anthropology Theory of Evolution The sociological perspective The sociological perspective The sociological perspective How the society influences us depends
On the time we live in (As discussed in the group work)
The culture/nation we live in
(As in the comparison of the education system in Africa
and Finland) The society, the system we live in, is different
Place (the country we are born in)
Time (the year we are born in)
Place: Example (Comparing Africa and Finland
and England, focus education)
Time: Group work Sociology deals with these differences and
inequalities Sociology deals with the influence of the society on us Group work. Watch the the movie clip "The Antz" and discuss in which way the ant society is similar/different to our society and what sociological
problems you could see in the movie How does the cultural background influence
the human? Biological Anthropology Archaeological Anthropology How did archaelogy influence the development of the human? How did the genes, our physical condition
influence the development of the human Social/Cultural Anthropology What does.....
....Our daily life.....
has to do with sociology? Syllabus What is Sociology? What is Anthropology?
Write down your ideas in a few sentences What jobs do sociologists and anthropologists work in?
Look at the slides, definitions and topics we have and think of different work fields/tasks of anthropologists/ sociologists you could imagine. Business:
Human resource manager
Journalist, social worker,
community based tourism
community affairs officer, environmental planner and researcher,
foreign affairs officer,human rights officer, urban/regional planner,
Research: consumer researcher, data analyst, demographer/population analyst, social research specialist, systems analyst Teaching: Academic evaluator, academic administrator, college placement worker, librarian, public health educator, teachers
Community Affairs: Career counselor, case worker, child development, community development officer, community organizer, cultural and environmental resource management officer, fund raising director, homeless/housing worker, housing coordinator, occupational counselor, rehabilitation program worker, resident planning aide, rural health outreach worker, social assistance advocate, youth outreach worker
Anthropologist work in archaeology firms at archaeological sites, in physical anthropology laboratories, in museums, as social science researchers Karl Marx Max Weber Herbert Spencer Emile Durkheim The functional perspective The conflict perspective The social action perspective Change, transformation and sociology A new industrial economy Sociology was born in the massive social transformation of the past two centuries in the 18th and 19th centure
From small scale manufacturing (make by hand)
Discorvery of technolgical advances, factory based industrial economy. The growth of cities Consequences: The growth of cities Enclosure Movement: Farmers moved to the cities
Anonymous industrial workforce
Huge poverty and mass suffering
Disease, Pollution, Crime Homelessness
Wekened families, eroded traditions
Break down of social order as we knew it Consequences: Political change: Control and democracy
During the Middle Ages people thought of society as the expression of God's will,
Not being in charge of their own life
Individual Liberty and Individual Rights
American Decleration of Independence The loss of "Gemeinschaft"
The eclipse of the community (Ferdinand Toennies) Our lives are guided by social structure, realtively stable paterns of social structure
Social structure in terms of its social functions
Herbert Spencer:What do the human body and the society have in common? Survival of the fittest society. Social Darwinism
Emile Durkheim: Focus on social soliditary Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
Focus on division
How are factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, sex and age are linked to unequal distribution of mony, power,
education and social strucutre Micro-level orientation:
A focus on social interaction in specific situations
How human meanings and action shape society
Beliefs and values have transforming power Charles Darwin The survival of the fittest. Term originally
coined by Herbert Spencer English naturalist
He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species Theory of evolution Adaptation Group work
(max. 7 people, 45 mintutes) Do you believe in any religion, if so which one and why?
How much does your believe influence your life and how much does the dominant religion in your country influence the daily life of the people?
Look at the slides. Do you agree or disagree with the idea of the sociologists Karl Marx and Max Weber on religion?
Present your ideas. Suicide Studies (Emile Durkheim, p. 9)
Durkheim explores the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics
Stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates.
Two problems with this interpretation.
First, Durkheim took most of his data from earlier researchers, notably, who were much more careful in generalizing from their own data.
Second, later researchers found that the Protestant-Catholic differences in suicide seemed to be limited to German-speaking Europe Max Weber Max Weber - The protestant ethic How do religious believes change patterns of
society, the relationships between the people? •German political economist and sociologist
•He was appointed to a chair in political economy at Heidelberg in 1896.
•He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1898 and did not
continue his scholarly work until 1904.
•From 1904 editorial director of the Archiv für
Social Sciences and Social Politics Max Weber, a political economist and sociologist:
What is the role of religion in the
process of social change? ...
What role can religion have ,
in the “modern”capitalist
society characterised by embracing
rationalization and oriented to
The iron cage: People are influenced by caplitalism and less by religion The iron cage. Max Weber Necessity for hard work as a component of a person's calling and as a sign of personal salvation
The protestant ethic broke the hold of tradition encouraging people to apply themselves rationally to their work.
Contrary to Marx’s understanding of religion as illusory compensation Weber demonstrated that religion can provide a powerful motivation for a major social change. Karl Marx Religion is the opium of the people
"Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people."
The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness.
Suffering can be only overcome by communism Sociology and Relgion Class discussion Introduction of project work focus
Social division and child rights
Question: 1. Discuss the aticles, statistics
and research findings in groups and present
main ideas to the class.
2. Look at the topics discussed in sociology/anthropology
(syllabus, book, handouts) and explain to the
class how they can be linked to the articles topics.
45 minutes preperation time Group work Individual work (30 min) What is your major study focus (English, Mass Media Communication...)?
For your like final project would you prefer to focus more on Media or English language?
What job or job field do you approach or could image to work in in later?
How could you apply knowledge gained from Sociology or Anthropology (look at the handouts, syllabus, book content) for your job?
Write down your answers on a sheet of paper. first we discuss them and please turn the paper in Project work For the outline of project frame and requirements please look at the syllabus and handout
We will brainstorm interests today but we will step by step form ideas and groups during the seminar.
So you do not have to decide on a group and topic right away. Latest day to decide on a group is August 6 Finches from the Galapagos Islands Group work:
Discuss the question and write down a summary of your discussion:
Explain Darwin's theory of: “The survival of the fittest”. How can his idea of the survival of the fittest be transfered to the survival of the fittest media or media users nowadays? How did