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Gender, Gender Identity, Gender, Expression, Sexism, and Sex

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Karen Cotta

on 24 February 2014

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Transcript of Gender, Gender Identity, Gender, Expression, Sexism, and Sex

A Multidimensional Reality
Gender, Gender Identity, Gender, Expression, Sexism, and Sexual Orientation
* A complex concept - social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or female

* social constructionist view

* Sexual reassignment

* Contemporary contributions and efforts legal protection, elimination of gender box, International Bill of Gender Rights (Anne Fausto-Sterling, 2000)
* victims isolated by threat or danger of becoming outed by perpetrator or would-be helpers
* fear judgment - lack of solidarity, dysfunctionality
* fighting back confused for mutual conflict
* abusers may threaten to take away children
* law officers not trained
* services for gay men very rare
Sexual and romantic attraction to persons of one or both genders (Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.78)
is a person's internal psychological self-concept of being male or female, or possibly some combination of both (Gilbert, 2008)
Gender Identity
Domestic Violence in LGBT community
Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Bisexuality......
Implications for Social Workers

* advocate for equal treatment for same-sex couples in local governments, military, civil union laws, SS, Medicaid, etc.
* assist couples in setting up Living Wills, Power of Attorney, Medical Power of Attorney
* Lobby for Federal protection for all victims of domestic violence
Discrimination and Unique Circumstances for LGBT Community
* violence
* employment
* military
* personal relationships
* child custody
* aging
Theories and Recent Discoveries
refers to the biological distinction between being male and female, usually categorized on the basis of the reproductive organs and genetic makeup
is "prejudice or discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women," that involves "behavior, conditions, or attitudes that foster stereotypes of social roles based on sex" (Mish, 2008)
Gender Expression
concerns how we express ourselves to others in ways related to gender that include both behavior and personality
Traditional Gender-Role Stereotypes
-Female stereotypes: being the nurturer, supportive, intuitive
-Male stereotypes: being powerful, creative, intelligent,
A major problem with gender-based stereotypes is that they limit people’s alternatives.
A major problem with gender-based stereotypes is that they limit people’s alternatives.
An example of the influences of gender role influences
Sexual Harassment
The EEOC (2010a) defines sexual harassment as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment…
-“Studies in the U.S. and Great Britain reveal that 42 to 88% of female workers have experienced sexual harassment.” Renzetti and Curran (2003)

Effects of Sexual Harassment
-Psychological effects: fear of retaliation, fear of not being believed
-Incurs financial costs i.e high job turnover rates, costs due to absenteeism and increased health problems

Rape and Sexual Assault
Sexual assault: unwanted sexual contact where physical force is used.
Rape: Sexual intercourse without mutual desire
-Women have an estimated 14 to 25% chance of being raped during their lifetime (Hyde & DeLamater, 2011; Koss, 1993)
-57% of sexual assaults and rapes were committed by someone the survivor knew (Catalano, Smith, Snyder, & Rand, 2009)

Battered Women/Spouse Abuse
Physical and emotional abuse, “the instilment of fear, oppression, and control of the victim (Barnett, Miller-Perrin, & Perrin, 2005, p. 252).
Why Does She Stay?
-Economic Dependence
-Lack of Self-Confidence
Factors in the Division of Labor by Sex:: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

Men dominate
-Hunting large aquatic fauna

Women dominate
-Water fetching

Factor A: Masculine Advantage
Men have greater strength, burst of energy, and women tend to closely be more attached to homes burden with pregnancy and infant care
Factor B: Female Advantage
Except for 23 activities, several are inherently up for grabs by either sex. Task that need daily attention are done by females.
Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies

Arapesh: feminine in its sexual aspects
Mundugumor: violent aggressive man and violent aggressive woman (associated masculine traits)
Tehambuli: dominant female, emotionally dependent male
“The material suggests that we may say that many, if not all, of the personality traits which we called masculine or feminine are as lightly linked to sex as are the clothing, the manners, and the form of head-dress that a society at a given period assigns to either sex.”

Dismantling Gender Polarization and Compulsory Heterosexuality: Should We Turn the Volume down or up?

Author wants to dismantle gender polarization and compulsory heterosexuality but sees it as a utopia society.

Turn the volume up argument : It is more effective if all of sex/gender/desire/ “abnormalities” homogenized stood in stark contrast of male/masculine/attracted to women and female/feminine/attracted to men in order to not be minimized or categorized as “dirt”
Cornell anthropologist Kathrin March:

Sex is to Gender as Light is to Color. Both sex and light are natural physical continua, whereas gender and color are historically and culturally constructed categories that arbitrarily divide sex and light into named clusters invested with cultural meaning.
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