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psy383_Opion:_ate_oid_or_otherwise

feelin' good ain't the province of dopamine
by

Will Moore

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of psy383_Opion:_ate_oid_or_otherwise

respiratory depression
euphoria
constipation
antidepressant effects
acute pain
chronic pain
biologically desirable

warning system for real or potential damage to the body

directs attention to salient threat?
serves no useful purpose

causes suffering

limits activites of daily life

increases cost of health care and disability
What's the difference between heroin and morphine?
highly undesirable
and
unpleasant

sensory
and
emotional
experience
pain in the periphery
direct signal, doesn't require the brain
addressed by NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like Ibuprofen
pain in the brain
sensory, emotional, cognitive experience
placebo response
psychological phenomena
conscious cognitive attention
opion
Greek word for "juice"
specifically, that of...
opiate
opioid
any exogenous drug that binds to an opiate receptor and produces agonistic effects
Papaver somniferum
endorphins
endogenous substances that exhibit the pharmacological properties of morphine
the label
applies only to:
codeine
'Tylenol 3'
(codeine +
acetaminophin)
morphine
pons
amygdala
opioid

receptors

hypothalamus
claustrum
cortex
thalamus
medulla
periaqueductal
grey (PAG)
spinal cord
analgesia
dependence
delta
mu
kappa
peripheral sensory neurons
sedation
dysphoria
delta
mu
kappa
thebaine
semi-synthetic

opioids
diacetyl morphine
heroin
hydrocodone
oxycodone
totally synthetic opioids
methadone
fentanyl
meperidine
endogenous
opioids
"endogenous"

"morphine"
endogenous opioids are polypeptide neurotransmitters
one neuron may synthesize/release a polypeptide AND a classic NT!
recntly discovered (1970s) and poorly understood
enkephalins
long precursor proteins that are packaged into vessicles along with the specific enzymes needed to transform them into active ligands
propeptides
dynorphins
Lipid solubility!!! (heroin is converted to morphine in the brain)
purple drank
is just
coedine
and
promethazine
an antihistamine antiemetic
all
opioid
receptors
are
metabotropic
they primarily affect
GABAergic
transmission
direct agonism of opioid receptors is what makes you feel good
indirect facilitation of dopamine is what makes it reinforcing
Naloxone (Narcan):
potent opioid antagonist
THIS is what can save people from heroin overdose
(not adrenaline)
miosis
opposite of mydriasis
σ
(often associated with actual or potential tissue damage)
s
i
g
m
a

r
e
c
e
p
t
o
r

σ
in statistics, represents variability
so too, in the central nervous system
long thought an
opiod

receptor
,
pharmacology
and, later,
genetics
have taught us that it is actually its
own class of receptor
, associated with no specific neurotransmitter system
except...
Ca
++
neuropsychopharmacologicenigma
s
i
g
m
a

r
e
c
e
p
t
o
r
s
are agonized by:
Amphetamine
Citalopram
Cocaine
Dextromethorphan
Dimethyltryptamine
Fluoxetine
Methamphetamine
Morphine/Heroin
Opioids (Oxycodone, fentanyl, etc.)
Phencyclidine
Salvanorin-A?
no fightin', no fussin'
Dextromethorphan
(DXM)
NMDAr antagonist
NON-
Selective Serotonin
Reuptake Inhibitor
s
i
g
m
a

r
e
c
e
p
t
o
r
agonist
Full transcript