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Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800

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Kimberly Lapointe

on 30 August 2017

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Transcript of Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800

Central European Monarchs Clash
Treaty of Westphalia:

Ended the Hapsburg dream of creating a strong Catholic government in the Holy Roman Empire.

Independence to 309 German states.

Ended religious wars in Europe.

Started the modern state system where each are equal and independent.
France
The Reign of Louis XIV
France
The Reign of Louis XIV
France
The Reign of Louis XIV
King Philip ll
of Spain ruled from 1556 - 1598 as an absolute monarch.

Controlled Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, the American colonies, and the Portuguese kingdom.

Defender of Catholicism
Spain's Empire and European Absolutism
Absolutism in Europe
Why did absolutism develop in Europe
Spain's Empire and European Absolutism

France
The Reign of Louis XIV
The Thirty Years' War
Central European Monarchs Clash
Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800

Chapter 5
From the 1500s-1800s Europe was ruled by
absolute monarchs:
kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries.
Absolute monarchs
believed in
divine right:
the idea that God created the monarchy and the monarch acted as God's representation on Earth.
Causes:
Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty.

The growth of armies to deal with these conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops.

Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts.
Effect:
Monarchs
regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control spread of ideas.

Monarchs
increased the size of their courts to appear more powerful.


Monarchs
created
bureaucracies
: people of power who he picked, to control the countries economy.
ABSOLUTISM!
Spain
Spain's Empire and European Absolutism
King Louis XIV
of France ruled from 1643-1715 as an absolute monarch.

King Louis XIV
was only four years old when he came to power. As a result, the mother
Anne of Austria
and
Cardinal Mazarin
ruled in his name.

He took over when
Mazarin
died in 1663.
He used the Sun as his royal symbol to suggest that he was the center of the French Universe.

During his
reign:
time being in power,

France dominated Europe.

French soldiers were forced to fight for the king and were given uniforms and ranks.

He increased the army from 10,000 to 40,000.
King Louis XIV
built
The Palace of Versailles
.

The palace took 27 years to build.

Had 2,000 acres of gardens and woods and inside had royal apartments and rooms for hundreds of nobles and servants.

France became the envy of Europe.
King Louis XIV
spent 30 years fighting other European powers. (Dutch Netherlands, Sweden, England, Spain.)

King Louis XIV
lost the last war that he fought in:
The War of Spanish Succession
.

King Louis XIV
spent all of France's money making him unpopular. No one was able to fix the debt problem.
When
: 1618-1648

Where
: Northern Europe/ German States

Who
: Catholics vs. Protestants. Armies from France, Sweden, Spain, Hapsburg dynasty (Holy Roman Empire)

Why
: Protestants in Bohemia did not want the Catholic Emperor Ferdinand ll anymore to be in charge of the Holy Roman Empire.
Result
: The German states were destroyed.
The Thirty Years' War
Central European Monarchs Clash
Prussia
Frederick the Great
ruled Prussia from 1740-1786 as an absolute monarch.

He did not believe in the Divine Right. He believed he should be like a father to his people.

Believed his main role was to extend Prussia's territory. (This is how he achieved his name)
Absolute Rulers in Russia
Russia
Czar Peter I (
Peter the Great
) ruled Russia from 1682 - 1725 as an absolute monarch.

He built a huge army and taxed the people to pay for it.

His goal was
westernization
: using western Europe as a model for change.
*Started Russia's first newspaper

*Raised women's status by having them attend social gatherings

*Reformed education ( Believed this was the answer!)
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
King Charles l
ruled England from 1625-1649 as an absolute monarch.

King Charles l
always needed money to fight in wars so he turned to Parliment for it. Several times when Parliament refused to give him the funds, he dissolved it.
England
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Petition of Right
King Charles l
called on Parliament again in 1629 to request more money. Parliament refused to give money until he signed the
Petition of Right:
* Not imprison subjects without due cause.


* Not levy taxes with Parliament's consent.


* Not house soldiers in private homes.


* Not impose martial law in peacetime.
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Petition of Right
King Charles l
signed the document to received his money. Then dissolved Parliament. Then ignored the four points!

HOWEVER
: This petition was still important because it gave the idea that the law was higher than the king.

King Charles l
called Parliament again for more money in 1641. This gave Parliament time to pass laws to limit royal power.
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
English Civil War
When
: 1642-1649

Where
: England

Who
: Supporters (Royalists) vs. Opponents (Parliamentarians)

Why
: Those who supported Parliament wanted to reduce the power of the king.

Result
:
Oliver Cromwell
(General for the opponents) and his army captured
King Charles l.
They brought
King Charles l
to trial for treason against Parliament. They found him guilty and sentenced him to death.
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Dictators, Monarchs, and Rulers OH MY!
Oliver Cromwell
started as a "lord protector" then turned into a military dictator towards the end of his time in power of England. Ruled from 1649- 1658.
Person
Action
Abolished the monarchy and created a
commonwealth
: republican form of government. Had a constitution written (first in Europe!) BUT tore it up and became a dictator.
King Charles ll
was a monarch who ruled England from 1659- 1685
Re-established the monarchy (Restoration). Parliament passed
habeas corpus
: every prisoner must be brought before a judge to hear their charges.
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Dictators, Monarchs, and Rulers OH MY!
Person

King James ll
ruled England as a monarch from 1685-1688.
Action
He was Catholic and put other Catholics in power. English Protestants became terrified at the potential of many future Catholic kings. Protestants invited someone else to overthrow him.
King William lll
(of orange) and his wife Mary became joint monarchs of England from 1688 to 1702.
Create
Constitutional monarchy
: laws limited the king's power. Create a Bill of Rights (1689) to list what a king could NOT do.
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