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The Crusades and The Flowering of The Middle ages
Transcript of The Crusades and The Flowering of The Middle ages
Calling the First Crusade
Fulcher of Chartres, Pope Urban II’s Speech at Clermont (1095)
Gregorian reforms enhanced the power and prestige of the head of the western Christian community. Pope Urban II embraced his new role and directed it towards freeing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks. A part of the city had been seized by them to expand the Asia Minor. The Byzantine emperor needed more military help and called upon the Pope for help. Urban II delivered a speech to a large crowd in Clermont, France in 1905. He urged them to put down their weapons and use them against the “infidel” in the Holy Land. Cleric Fulcher of Chartres was one of the hundred that were present during the speech and was also a chaplain for the crusade leaders. He wrote about his experiences including what he heard during the speech by Pope Urban II. Fulcher wrote a three volume chronicle which is considered to be the most reliable.
Pope Urban II stated that he has a mission from God for them. He asks that they be faithful shepherds of God and if they listen to him and fulfills their divine duty than God would reward them. The Turks and Arabs have attacked and conquered the territory of Romania as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean. They have occupied more and more lands of those Christians. As Christian people they should take back what has been taken from them. Urban tells the people to adjust all faults and become purified. He asks for them to go out and try to correct sins in others. Persuade all people to carry aid quickly to those Christians and destroy the race.
Urban reveals that as long as you die fighting against the pagans in battle; for God you will have full remission of sins. He calls for all Christians to unite and fight by the command of Christ. Let the fighting with each other end and begin to fight together against the barbarians. For he states that it would be a disgrace if those who “worships demons” would conquer people who are believers of omnipotent God/ Those that are mercenaries and that are fighting for little pay will obtain the eternal reward. By joining the crusade God will always guide you. 11.5
Sack of Constantinople
Annals of Niketas Choniates
By Maria Velez
This is an account written by Greek
He spoke in great detail about how they scaled walls,set things on fire and killed
Also how the citizens kept out of the crossfires. This left the city vulnerable and open for looting
The looting was of religious articles and they were trashing the churches, Choniates even called the crusaders the antichrist
He finishes by talking about how the city was engulfed in the fury of the Lord Group Three The Crusades and The Flowering of The Middle Ages
King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII, Letter and Excommunication.
Pope Gregory VII was head of a movement for church reform, which main objective was to liberate the church from secular influence and wealth.
The letter from King Henry IV was written after he denounced Pope Gregory VII for not obeying the law prohibiting laymen from appointing church leaders.
In response to King Henry IV, Pope Gregory excommunicated and deposed the king. 10.4
Arab Response to the First Crusade
By Daniel Ochoa Diaz & Devina Roman
A Muslum Perspective
*Pope Urban II's plan
*Declared Holy War How The Franks Took the City of Antioch
*First appearance of the Frankish power: Spain 1085-86
*Conquests 1091-92 and 1096-97
*Baldwin and Roger's disagreement
*Byzantine emperor's request
*Arrival and Camping
*Yaghi Siyan, ruler of Antioch
*Striking a deal
*June 1098, take over
*Ibn's views How the Muslims Marched against the Franks and What Befell Them
*Crusaders under siege
*City falling apart
*Crusaders' inspired attack
*Aftermath How the Franks (God Curse Them) Took
-After theBattke of Antioch, Turks became weaker and lost cohesion.
-This spurred Egyptians to take seige on Jerusalem.
-Later on the Franks took Jerusalem and slaughtered the Muslims.
-In the Aqsa Mosque the Franks killed more than 70,000 people.
William I (a.k.a. William the Conquerer) duke of Normandy, king of England from 1066 - 1087
Won the throne from king Harold II in the battle of Hastings 1066 in town of Battle
Wise but cruel, evident in his destruction of coastal villages to deter invasion of Cnut of Denmark
Dispatched half of army and used other half for his census, Domesday, Greater and Littleou
He had an census, he ephazized punctuality, he wanted to know every detail of his country. It was the first census in history.
Wanted to know how much money he can make from the land via taxes.
Had his brother Odo arrested, belived ir was because of dissagreements with himself
Ruthhless was against anyone who did not agree with him.
Wore crown three times a year, he felt deignafied because of it
He gained reputation for conquering whales and scotland
oppresively violent, came from his greed, took from poor and powerful, felt that the lifestock had more worth than other resources
Poem was written about him via unkown source about his character a few years after his death. Melissa Simoes
Section 10.3 The Power of William I By Randy Clarke
*Permanent centers of learning were established with patronage from kings
*Kings saw inherent benefits in having scholars in country, such as molding the subjects of the kingdom
*King Frederick I of Germany & King Philip II of France granted special privileges and ensure safety to students
*Students seen as rowdy and were the poor, relied on charity or theft
A Wandering Student's Petition
“By thy worth I pray thee,
Give the suppliant help in need,
Heaven will surely repay thee.”
A Song of the Open Road
“When we're in neediness,
Theive we with greediness;
Tara, tantara, teino!”
Good sense of community and brotherhood; reminiscent of modern day fraternities 11.1
Scholarly pursuits and Youthful frolics
Medieval University Life (12th – early 13th centuries)
By Hosni Acevedo