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Copy of AP Psychology Carnival Project: Victimology
Transcript of Copy of AP Psychology Carnival Project: Victimology
Situated Transaction Model
Routine Activity Theory
Lawrence Cohen & Marcus Felson
According to Andrew Karmen:
It the relationships between victims & offenders
the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system --
E.g. the police and courts, & corrections officials
the connections between victims & other societal groups/institutions
E.g. the media, businesses, & social movements.
1. Precipitating factors
2. Attributing factors
3. Predisposing factors
E.g. sociodemographic characteristics
Effects on Society
By: Samantha Hemler
Hans Von Hentig
"The Father of Victimology"
In the 1940's-50's
Hentig, Mendelsohn, & Ellenberger did studies on:
The interactions between victim and offender
The importance of reciprocal influences
How victims can have some responsibility along w/ the offender
study the behaviors/vulnerabilities of victims
E.g. the resistance of rape victims
Victimology includes the study of the precursors, vulnerabilities, events,
impacts, recoveries, and responses by people, organizations and cultures related to victimizations.
Theory on interpersonal level
About homicide as a chain of events from people's reactions
The offender, victim and audience and how they all react to each other to escalate into violence
Has 6 stages:
presence of weapons & onlookers
Saw a relationship between being a victim & the social setting
He interviewed victims and developed victim typology
6 types of victims:
more guilty than offender
His theory revolves around why criminals can take advantage of select individuals
The 7 typologies of victims:
The Lonesome and Heartbroken
The Blocked, Exempted, and Fighting
The Activating Sufferer
-Suitable Target (VIVA)
-Lack of guardian
Benjamin & Master's
Living a high-risk lifestyle that includes: drugs, alcohol, going out at night makes you susceptible
Deviant Place Hypothesis
Equivalent Group Hypothesis
Victim Precipitation Theory
Studied by Marvin Wolfgang
Active vs. Passive
victim provokes altercation
E.g. Fighting/aggressive words or seductiveness
Victim has a personal characteristic that threatens offender
E.g. promotion or love interest
It's considered "victim-blaming" which most people don't agree with.
Indicates that rape occurs because of provocative clothing
Greater political support for victims rights legislation
Increased funding for crime victim services