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Pronunciation & Listening Comphrehension
Transcript of Pronunciation & Listening Comphrehension
Native speakers are often not aware of how quickly they speak. Most teachers need to make a conscious effort to slow down when speaking. Perhaps more importantly, you need to become aware of the type of vocabulary and structures you are using. Here is an example:
Ok Natalia, let's hit the books!
Language skills need to be recycled many times before they are actively acquired.
All language skills-reading writing, speaking and listening should be involved in the learning process.
Understanding grammar rules does not mean that a student can use that grammar - students need to actively practice skills they are learning.
Studies have shown that new functions need to be repeated several times before it can be actively used by the student.
still only passively activated
It requires active listening, facilitating dialogue, problem solving, and accountability.
Restorative feedback is what illuminates blind spots in a positive manner. It reinforces and encourages students and builds confidence and self-esteem. Without restorative feedback students don't grow and learn.
Telling them that they can improve performance.
Activity - Four Corners
Goal : to meet at least 3 people .
Note that you will need to use open ended questions for the conversation to take place.You will get to know one another better.
One sheet of paper and a pencil, and a timer.
Directions: Write the following questions on the board.
How long have you been teaching ?
Have you learned another language?
Have you ever lived abroad?
What do you like to do in your leisure time?
The basic unit of English rhythm is syllable.
Counting syllables ( ease / easy/ easily)
Extra syllables in the past tense verbs ( rent- rented)
Silent letters ( Wednesday/ Vegetable / Business/ Chocolate )
Divide class into teams. In five minutes, write the names of any foods you can think of that have one, two, three, and four syllables. (Country name)
rice - ice cream- banana- asparagus
France- Japan- Singapore- Argentina
Dictation: How many syllables?
Listen and write the sentences you hear. Then count the number of syllables in each sentence. ( you will hear the sentence twice)
Each vowel can be pronounced with different sounds.
There are only five vowel letters, however there are many more vowel sounds.
Tongue position for the alphabet sound /a/ and /o/ there is a small change at the end of the sound
practice saying /a/ and /o/ ( off-glide)
Two Vowel Rule
When there are two vowel letters in a stressed syllable word. The first one is pronounced with its alphabet sound ( long vowel) and second vowel is silent.
cake - tea - ice - cone - blue
remain - repeat - alive - soapy - introduce
One Vowel Rule
If there is only one vowel letter in a stressed syllable of a word , it is pronounced with its relative vowel sound (short vowel)
pan - ten - is - top - cut
practice - expensive - predict - stopping - Sunday
se me . Where's the b
It's on the corner of
ater Road and S
The most important sound
The strong Syllable
The most important word
The word group
Only the stressed vowel sound is extra clear as well as extra long.
na ( rubber band)
Schwa, the Unclear Vowel
There is no letter for the schwa sound.
All of the vowel sounds in English that are not stressed can be reduced to schwa.
Schwa is the most common vowel sound in spoken English.
The reason many vowel sounds are reduced to schwa is to make a contrast with the clear peak vowel in the stressed syllable.
e.g. travel, pilot, ticket, Kansas, Alaska, Nebraska, America.
One reduced Vowel
Two reduced vowels
A student was sent to Tacoma Intending to earn a diploma.
He said, "with the rain, I don't want to remain. I think I'd prefer Oklahoma."
CAN vs. CAN'T
Can't is usually said with a clear vowel sound, but the vowel sound in can is usually reduced.
We can't do it.
We can do it.
They said they can't be there.
They said they can be there.
You can't have mine.
You can have mine.
Yes, I can.
No, I can't.
Game Stations 15 min per station
Scrambled States of America
rhythm and melody; the combination of
these two aspects may be called prosody.
Focus Rule 1
The stressed syllable of a focus word is extra long, extra clear, and has a pitch
Focus Rule 2
The focus word in a sentence is usually a content word.
Focus Rule 3
Structure words are usually de-emphasized to contrast with the focus word.
This contrast makes it easier for the hearer to notice the focus word.
Focus Rule 4
At the beginning of a conversation, the last content word in a clause or sentence
is usually the focus word.
Focus Rule 5
After a conversation begins, the new thought in each sentence is the focus
Summary of Thought Group Rules
Thought Group Rule 1
There is often a pause at the end of a thought group to signal that the thought
group is finished.
Thought Group Rule 2
There is often a fall in pitch at the end of a thought group to signal the thought
group is finished.
Thought Group Rule 3
There is one focus word in each thought group
Continuants vs. Stops
Voiced vs. Voicless
Sibilants. ( es add syllable)
Thought group ( Obama)
- tion/ - sion/ - cian
magician, election, education.
-ic and -ical
robotic, comic, terrific,diplomatic.
Word Stress Patterns
HOMONYMS are words that sound alike but have different meanings.
It's impossible to tear open this packet.Give me a knife.
A single tear ran silently down her cheek as she waved good-bye.
He always looks so content with himself.
The content of your essay was excellent, but there were a lot of spelling mistakes.
She wore five bows in her hair.
After the performance he took five bows.
The calendar was happy because he had a date.
Do you have flowers?
I need some four.
The focus word in a sentence or a thought group is usually a content word.
Nouns, Main verbs, Adverbs, Adjectives, Question words
My cat eats
. ( noun)
it. ( Main verb)
But only fr
sh fish. (adjective)
He eats sl
wly. ( adverb)
I don't know wh
he eats that way. ( question word)
De-emphasizing structure Words
These words do not carry much information as content words.
Structure words are usually de-emphasized to help make a contrast with the focus word.
Pronouns, Preposition, Article, Conjunctions, Auxiliary verbs, "to be" verbs
Break 12:00- 1:00 PM
I found a cow
1. write down the answers on four corners. ( 1 min)
2. find a classmate and talk about the answers. (3 min per student)
3. share the information with the rest of the class. ( 1 min per student)
Hello! How are you ?
Nice talking to you.
Communication in spoken English is organized by “musical signals.” There
are two aspects to these signals – rhythm and melody – and the combination of
these two aspects may be called prosody. Often, the term prosody is used to mean
rhythm alone, while the term intonation is used to refer specifically to melody
(or pitch patterns). However, in this booklet, prosody will refer to the combination
of both rhythm and melody. The reason is that for the purposes of teaching
pronunciation, the teacher needs to understand that both these aspects of spoken
English work together and are vitally linked. The term prosody provides us
with a handy way to refer to the interconnected aspects of rhythm and melody
with a single label.
Continuants vs. Stops
Linking with /s/
The boats entered the water.
Is the boss in the office?
Linking with /t/
get in --> getin
right answer----> rightanswer
The boat entered the water
We need a lot of money.
It's right around the corner.
Sibilants are consonants that make a hissing sound.(air)
Voiced sibilants: his beige badge
Voiceless sibilants: hiss wash batch
Sue / shoe lease/ leash
see/ she mass/ mash
so /show gas/ gash
Linking with sibilant
rush of traffic
jet / yet
- es ending
To help your listeners understand what you mean clearly, you must emphasize the most important words and de-emphasize the less important words.
Making the vowel in the stressed syllable of the focus word extra long and extra clear.
Adding a pitch change to the stressed syllable
Separating words into THOUGHT GROUPS
A thought group can be a short sentence or part of a longer sentence.
Each thought group has a focus word.
A pause gives your listeners time to think about what was just said. If people have trouble understanding you, pausing at the end of each major thought group can help them understand you better.
Signaling the end of a thought group with a pause.
In written sentences, punctuation marks indicate the pause at the end of a thought group.
I'd like six oranges, and two slices of cheese.
When you get there, call me, and I'll come get you.
"Let's go for a walk," I said. t she replied, "I'm busy."
There is often a pause at the end of a thought group to signal that the thought group is finished.
There is often a fall in pitch at the end of a thought group to signal that the thought group is finished.
A small fall in pitch means the end of the thought group.
A big fall means the end of a sentence. Or getting ready to start a new topic.
A very big fall means the end of a person's turn to speak.
Stress and Rhythm
Rachel - Worcestershire
King of Queens
Randall’s ESL Lab
Punctuation Saves Lives
Coach Shane’s ESL
Tongue Twister - Betty Botter
Meeting New People
Family Feud Online http://www.games.com/play/i-play/guess-it
The Scrambled States of America - Gamewrite
I’ve Never - INI,LLC
Cat and Mouse Idioms - Edupress
Color Vowel- sensibleenglish.wordpress
Speedy Bee - Blue Orange
Coffee Talk - Pressman
Lickety Quick - Educational Insights
Word a Round - Thinkfun
Coach Shane Esl
Randal’s ESL lab.
Clear Speech by Judy Gilbert
What was your ah-ha moment?
Can you share what you might use from today's workshop for your students?
Two clear vowels together, the second vowel has the stress and is longer.
Biology, piano, geography, create.