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Islamic Land Empires

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by

Steph Gorges

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Islamic Land Empires

Safavid Empire
Mughal Empire
Ottoman Empire
Islamic Land Empires
Songhay:
Osman Bey
Born the year the Mongols destroyed Baghdad (1258)
Founder of dynasty in Anatolia
Ghazi - Muslim religious warriors
Used system of 'devshireme'
Mehmed the Conqueror
Goal was to conquer Constantinople
Utilizes gunpowder/canons - building of the Basilic
Conquers city in 1453 - renames city Istanbul
Transforms Hagia Sophia
Reinstates the jizya, but allowed religions freedom
Expands the devshirme system
Suleyman the Magnificent
Largest extent of empire
Conquered Hungary (moved into Europe)
Became naval power
Monumental architecture:
Dome of the Rock
Suleyman Mosque
Seemed like the umma was back on track
Shah Ismail
Persian based (Iran)
Shiite sect (Shia)
"Twelver Shiism" - 12 infallible imams
Blended Shiism & Turkish militarism
"Red heads"
Guns = unmanly
Sunni vs. Shiite beliefs
Ottoman vs. Safavid
Conflict
Babur
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb
Akbar
Mughal Empire - "Mongol"
King of Kabul in 1504
Conquers parts of India
Becomes 1st Mughal emperor
Persian influence
Babur's grandson
Strong military commander - most of India
Religious tolerance 80/20 split - Hindu/Muslim beliefs
Created "Divine Faith" - blend of H/M/Z
Abolished non-Muslim tax
Encouraged intermarriage
Descendant of Akbar
Patron of the arts
Arts with Hindu & Islamic influences
Built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his late wife
Went away from tolerance of his father - Jahan
Purify India of Hinduism
Re-instated jizya
Weakened empire
Hindu tension - paved way towards British
Ottoman Sultan Selim the Grim vs. Shah Ismail
PIECES:
Environment
Primarily Islamic
Also Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Sikhs
Akbar:
"Divine Faith" - loyalty to emperor, primarily Islamic
Aurangzeb
: Jizya - tax on non-Muslims = status of 'protected people'
Culture
Revival of Istanbul (Constantinople)
Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia)
Refurb of Dome of the Rock
Taj Mahal
Intellectual
All military leaders
Political
Agricultural economies (Wheat, rice)
Columbian Exchange brought potatoes, maize, tomatoes, etc
Traded for tobacco, sugar & coffee
Foreign trade (Ottoman Empire = $$$)
Economic
social Status
Ottoman Empire
Written laws
(Suleyman the Lawgiver)
Safavid & Mughal
Empires
Mixed religion & leadership
At times - forced religion
*Aurangzeb
Ottoman Empire
Harem women had voice to sultan
Safavid Empire
Wife of shah = de facto ruler
Mughal Empire
Taj Mahal built for Shah Jahan's wife
Sonni Ali
First leader of Songhay
Mixture of Islam & African animism/magic
Center of Islamic learning
1556-1605
(1658-1707)
Full transcript