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Iran-Iraq War

IB 20th Century Topics

Lindsay West

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Iran-Iraq War

Iran Iraq Iran-Iraq War Conflict between Iran and Ba'athist Iraq -large scale trench warfare UN Resolution 598 Works Cited History of Modern Warfare: Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 Iraq wants to become the most powerful/influential nation in the Middle East Causes Practices Effects Battles -Border disputes -Fears from the Iranian Revolution -manned machine-gun posts -bayonet charges -human wave attacks across no-man's land -chemical warfare -Religious differences Between June and September 1980 there were 193 clashes along the Iran-Iraq border Battle of Khorramshahr International Response Cold War Influence Dates September 1980 June 1982 May 1984 1985 July 1987 July 1988 August 1988 Iraqi forces invade Iran Iran counterattacks, rejects ceasefire offer Iran attacks Gulf shipping which escalates Tanker War Bombing of civilian centers in War of the Cities UN resolution 598 calls for a ceasefire US carrier shoots down Iranian civilian airliner (claimed that it was a fighter) Ceasefire agreed Shatt al-Arab Key Figures Saddam Hussein Ayatollah Khomeini United States Soviet Union Involved two major oil producers In the region where half the world's oil reserves are located Disputed over control over Shatt al-Arab 1847: Iran would gain control over Khorramshahr and Abadan 1975: the midpoint of the Shatt river would be the boundary between the two countries socialist/ pro-Soviet anti-socialist/ pro-Western Muslim: Sunni Muslim: Shiite crackdown on Shiite fundamentalists sending aid to Arab separatists in Iran overthrow Hussein's regime because of anti-Islamic traits spreading Islamic Revolution throughout the Middle East June 1979: Iraqi aircraft attacked Iranian villages April 1980: Iranian-backed rebel group Al Dawaa attempted to assassinate the Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz June 1980: Iran and Iraq severed relations Background Sunni Shiite Iraq Iran Conventional War -although used chemical weaponry 1980-1988 natural gas & petroleum reserves Shi'ite Islam Persian Iranian Revolution, 1978 -Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi -favored British & US oil interests -corrupt ruler -Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini -opposed the Iranian government Results of Iranian Revolution -Iran becomes an Islamic Republic -Iran approved a theocratic constitution -Khomeini becomes the Supreme Leader -Iran-US relations deteriorated -November 4, 1979 Arabic & Kurdish -Gained independence from Britain, 1932 -14 July Revolution led to the end of the monarchy, 1958 -Ba'ath Party overthrows Rahman Arif, 1968 -Saddam Hussein becomes President, July 16, 1979 "The war was more immediately the result of poor political judgement and miscalculation on the part of Saddam Hussein...the decision to invade, taken at a moment of Iranian weakness, was Saddam's." -Phebe Marr, analyst of Iraqi affairs Iraq claimed 200km channel as its territory Iran thalweg was official border (negotiated in 1975) Long Term: Long Term: Short Term: Power Struggle -violation of humanitarian law -violation of armed conflict -calls for a ceasefire between the two states -POWs are to be released -Neither side won -Border disputes were not resolved -Hussein and Khomeini remained in power -Suffered from great losses -People (military and civilian) -Material -Financial Resources Hussein and Khomenini continued to pursue their foreign policies Iran Iraq Syria closed a key Iraqi oil pipeline to the Mediterranean Libya China North Korea Israel* Gulf States Saudi Arabia Kuwait Egypt Jordan US Soviet Union France The US was primarily involved in the war to prevent one side from becoming the dominant power in the Gulf. -wanted an inconclusive war that left both sides worse off than when they had started Tanker Wars -war started up again on the Persian Gulf, April 1984 -attack on Iranian tanker -lasted for 18 months -one of the major engagements of the Iran-Iraq War -Sept. 22-Nov. 10, 1980 -Iraqi forces succeeded in capturing Khorramshahr -delayed Iraq's progress in the war -> their military and political objectives were unattainable -needed to control Khorramshahr to take Abadan -Jan. 1981 -Iranian forces lured Iraqi forces into an ambush -Iranian forces withdrew from the battle first -Iraq: 50 tanks destroyed -Iran: 88 tanks destroyed http://www.cfr.org/iran/un-security-council-resolution-598-iran-iraq/p11200
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youtube Battle of Dezful Activity In a team, make a political cartoon about the Iran-Iraq war. It can be about the background, causes, practices, effects, etc. Sunni Islam True Successor: Abu Bakr Ali ibn Abi Talib Identity: human leaders infallible manifestations of God and perfect interpreters of the Qu'ran Al Mahdi: will come in the future was already on earth Holy cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbala Iraq Iran
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