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Socio spatial criminology and cultural criminology

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Charnpreet Bolina

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of Socio spatial criminology and cultural criminology

Looked at the amount of Arson cases in Enlgand and Wales and saw that there are 2000 a week.
For Presdee each arson case and emotional motive behind it and is quite symbolic, by carrying out interviews with Sixth formers, Presdee saw that fire was symbolic for may reasons. A year 12 boy stated that on the last day of school they had burnt their blazers to show they are free from school and no longer oppressed by school rules. In this arson case the burning of blazers was symbolic for freedom.

However, some saw fire as a harmful substance. Presdee study showed mixed opinions about the use of fire. This shows that not all arson cases would be done to show something symbolic and it is difficult to always know the motive of each arson case.
Katz argued that behind some cases of murder there is an emotional motive, this was a feeling of shamefulness, humiliation towards another individual, hate attack, fear of embarrassment and a revenge attack. All these factors can lead to the murder of an individual for Katz by murdering for some it was an anger outlet as behaviour had become intolerable.
Lyng edgework
Looked at the concept of edgework whereby in a boring society, people would start to look for new thrills that would compesate how they feel towards a boring environment. An example of this could be over speeding on a 40mph junction but going at 80mph. Lyng describes edgework as being on the edge of danger yet the act is not criminal, its "flirting" with danger.
Lyng argued that edgework is committed out of a individual hyper-reality, the way in which they perceive reality even though it does not correlate to their real life.
Socio spatial
Socio spatial aims to look at the geography in which crime is committed, if focuses on the time and the location.
Shaw and Mckay
Shaw and Mckay saw that there are different aspects in a city: Central Zone, Business district, outer suburbia and the Zone of transition.

The Zone of Transition is the area where crime is high as social control amongst communities is weak and the living standards are quite low. Allowing crime to occur as people have less opportunities to improve their living standards, the area is socially disorganized, the norms and values are different from mainstream values
Brantington: Cognitive maps
According to Brantington every member within society has their own routes of the area they live in, for example: a criminal is going to know different routes compared to a non-criminal such as: short cuts into private property and escape routes as a result will commit crime due to the different route knowledge.

However, here Brantington is assuming that criminals plan out rationally how to commit crime by finding the "short cuts" and the "escape routes" this cannot be representative for all criminals as racial attacks on an individual does not require rational planning.

Secondly, Brantington only looks at how criminal use routes to commit crime, yet ignores crimes such as: corporate crime and white collar crime that do not require "escape routes"
Socio spatial
Socio spatial criminology and cultural criminology
Brantington: Cognitive maps

Shaw Mckay: the types of city areas

Felson: "capable guardian"

Ron Clarke: Situational crime prevention.

According to Felson, the timing in which crime is committed is important. A criminal is not going to commit where the presence of a "capable guardian" is quite high. This is the agents of social control such as the police, who prevent crime. Moreover, a criminal would not commit crime during daylight, Felson gives the example of a high street. During the day a highstreet is quite busy, therefore, less opportunities to theft or commit other crimes. Whereas, at nighttime crime is more likely to occur as streets become more quieter making it easier to escape from committing a theft.

However, Felson claims can be seen as less convincing, this is because, it does not consider the capable guardians, in other words to police increase presence at night time to tackle crime.
Additionally, Felson fails to understand the motives behind each criminal act.
According to Ron Clarke, the opportunities to commit crime needs to be reduced (similar to the right realist perspective: target hardening).An example of how to restrict the opportunities to commit crime can be more house alarms on properties to deter criminals to carry out thefts.

Additionally, crimes need to be made less attractive this can be done by increasing the prison sentence on offences committed again this would act as an deterrent on crime, for example: the sentence for shoplifting should be increased, to deter offender to shoplift again.

However, this simply displaces crime it does not directly reduce it as criminals will respond to the controls, for example: -find a new location to carry out crime, new timings and a new victim. As a result crime cannot be stopped through this method as locations and victims can be changed.
However, it is difficult to suggest that offenders murder due to emotions this is because, it would be difficult to study what the offender felt directly at the time of the murder. Emotions can change and the offender may lie about what they felt at the time.
Murder can be an unintended consequence
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