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DIAL - 3

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Kathryn Youndt

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of DIAL - 3

Pros and Cons of the Assessment
Pros and Cons of the Assessment
PRO
Sample of DIAL - 3 Scoring Sheet
Materials Used to Assess
User Friendly Nature of Assessment
Positive, nonthreatening environment

Fun, age appropriate tasks

Bright, appealing, child-friendly materials

Stimuli presented one at a time
Dial, manipulatives, or other materials


Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Third edition of the DIAL assessment

Developed by Carol Mardell, PhD, Dorothea S. Goldenberg, EdD in 1998

Age Range: 3:0 - 6:11



Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning, Third Edition
(DIAL – 3)

Manual and four Operator's Handbooks:
Language, Concepts, Motor, Self-Help and Social Development

Record Forms

Manipulatives
cutting cards
colored blocks
plastic shapes




Materials Used to Assess
Parent Questionnaire
child's health history
background
self-help and social development

Parent-Child Activity Form
enhance child's development in motor, concepts, and language skills
User Friendly Nature of Assessment
Station format
allows screening of many children quickly and efficiently

Completion Time: 20-30 minutes

Scoring is easy, with pass/fail grades. A comment area is given for each area to allow the person giving the test to add relevant comments.
Overview: A screener for assessing large groups of children quickly and efficiently.

Scores/Interpretation: DIAL-3 provides standard deviation and percentile cutoff points by chronological age at two-month intervals for total and area scores.


Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Self-Help Development:
development of personal care skills - dressing, eating, and grooming

Social Development:
development of social skills with other children and parents - rule compliance, sharing, self-control, and empathy


Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Concepts Area:
pointing to body parts
naming or identifying colors (learning disability identifier)
rote counting
counting blocks
placing a block in named positions relative to a little house
identifying concepts in a triad of pictures
sorting shapes

Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Language Area:
answering simple personal questions (name, age, sex)
articulation
naming (expressive) or identifying (receptive) objects and actions
phonemic awareness tasks like rhyming and I Spy

Screens all five early childhood areas:
Motor
Language
Concepts
Self-help
Social development



Administration Procedures of the Assessment

Tests may be purchased by individuals with:
A master's degree in psychology, education, occupational therapy, social work, or in a field closely related to the intended use of the assessment
Certification by or full active membership in a professional organization (such as ASHA, CEC, NAEYC)
A degree or license to practice in the healthcare field
Formal, supervised mental health, speech/language, and/or educational training specific to assessing children

CONS

DIAL-3 Manual = $122.40

DIAL-3 Administration Forms for English Includes 50 Record Forms, 50 Cutting Cards, and 50 Parent Questionnaires = $84.15

DIAL-3 Administration Forms for Spanish Includes 50 Record Forms, 50 Cutting Cards, and 50 Parent Questionnaires = $88.15


CONS


The Motor area reliabilities were 0.70 = not a good reliability score

Recommended that the DIAL-3 Motor area sub-test should not be used as a separate test but only as a part of the entire assessment.

Inaccurate with older children, ages 6-6 to 6-11
perfect scores on the Motor portion of the test.

All of the individual sub-test areas have lower reliability scores than the overall assessment.
sub-test areas contain fewer test items than the total test, and are therefore more prone to error and inconsistent performances


Cost
QUALIFICATION LEVEL B:
PRO
The reliability of a test is a measure of how accurately and consistently results can be duplicated.

DIAL-3 has an internal reliability score of 0.87
Internal reliability is a measure of any inconsistencies an individual child might have within similar testing items designed to test the same thing.

The DIAL-3 has an inter-rater reliability score of 0.90 and a reliable test-retest score of 0.84 - 0.88. These scores indicate that the DIAL-3 is a technically reliable overall screening tool.


PRO
The validity of a test is a measure of the degree to which it measures what it is supposed to measure.

DIAL-3 has a validity score of .79, which is statistically significant

There is a strong relationship between DIAL-3 scores and the DAS (Differentiated Ability Scores), which supports the validity of the DIAL-3.

“Face Validity” – asks if a test seems to measure what it says it does, and appropriately.
The DIAL-3 validity is enhanced by gaining the cooperation and interest of children through its use of familiar and colorful manipulatives.

PRO
DIAL-3 is a norm-referenced assessment
each child is evaluated based on other children’s performances

The DIAL-3 was “normed” on a national sample of 1,560 English-speaking and 650 Spanish-speaking children. The samples of children were matched to the current population for demographics like age, gender, geographic area, race, and parental education.


PRO
Can be used to determine students who have learning deficits that need quick intervention in terms of further assessment or placement

Speech and Language, ESL, and Title-1 services can be started, as well as classroom strategies, child study team referrals, and parent activities

Because of the DIAL-3, the classroom teacher is not put in the position of advocating for services based on her own opinion, or hasty assessments in the first month of school.


PRO
Allows the screening of many children quickly and efficiently

Also a con because many qualified staff are need to move children and their parents through the screening process

CONS
Administration Procedures of the Assessment
Motor Area:
Gross Motor - catching, jumping, hopping, and skipping
Fine Motor - building with blocks, cutting, copying shapes and letters, writing, and a finger-touching task


Can be used as:
a placement tool to pre-test incoming Kindergarteners
post-test tool to determine progress made

Although the DIAL-3 specifically does NOT monitor classroom progress, it can be used at 6 month intervals to show overall progress.

MOTOR SCORES RELIABILITY
PRE AND POST TESTING
STATION FORMAT
DIAGNOSTIC TOOL
VALIDITY
RELIABILITY
NORM-REFERENCED
Examples of Use
The Early ON School Readiness Project in San Antonio, Texas used the DIAL-3 to measure success of their community based program for 3-5 year old Latino children.
The children were given the DIAL-3 in both the fall and spring for 2 years.
The first year was a baseline year, which showed very little progress.
The second year, after the program’s intervention, all scores were higher within the DIAL-3. This is a practical use of this assessment.

Resources
Developmental indicators for the assessment of learning, third edition. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.pearsonclinical.com/psychology/products/100000642/developmental-indicators-for-the-assessment-of-learning-third-edition-dial-3.html

Kuhn, L. (2001). Wichita schools DIAL – 3 for successful preschool screening. Pearson Education. Retrieved from http://www.speechandlanguage.com/inside-scoop/wichita-schools-dial-3-for-successful-preschool-screening

Mardell-Czudnowski C., & Goldenberg D. S. (2000). A new test for assessing preschool motor development: DIAL – 3. Retrieved from http://journals.humankinetics.com/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/14285.pdf

Winter, S. M., Zurcher, R., Hernandez, A., & Yin Z. (2007). The early on school readiness project: a preliminary report. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22 (1.) Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ782012

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