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Military Drones

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Elizabeth Robertson

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of Military Drones

Military Drones:
An Ongoing Inquiry By:
Tanya Bhalla
Patrick Carmody
Lucia Proctor-Bonbright
Elizabeth Robertson A History of Drones First drone created:
"AT" (Sale) 1916 1950s World War II: development of drones as compact aircraft monitored by radios ("military aircraft.") Drones become increasingly complex networks ("military aircraft.")
Retrievable with parachutes or touchdowns guided by radios ("military aircraft.") 1941-
1945 Initial usage of AQM-34 Firebee of Ryan Aeronautical Company ("military aircraft.") 1962 Tadiran Mastiff initiated as UAVs began to be used in battle by Israelis ("military aircraft.") 1975 Scout and Tadiran Mastiff used in Lebanon conflicts ("military aircraft.") 1982 Persian Gulf War: Creation of RQ-2 Pioneer ("military aircraft.") 1990- 1991 1995 U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) starts to provide money for "micro UAVs" ("military aircraft.") MQ-1 Predator brought into full use; significant UAV used by the U.S. ("unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).”) 1997 Authorization for the Use of Military Force following 9/11 (Bellinger)
Invasion of Afghanistan (MQ-1 Predator in use) ("military aircraft.") 2003 Invasion of Iraq; use of RQ-5 Hunter ("military aircraft.") 2001 MQ-9 Reaper used above Afghanistan; bought by U.S. alliances (U.K.) ("military aircraft.") 2007 "Hovering UAVs" start to be used by U.S. Navy ("military aircraft.") 2009 What are drones? UNMANNED
ARTILLERY
VEHICLES
(UAVs) [Method of
Targeted Killing] Debate:
Against and For Drones:
A form of aircraft used by the military that is remotely driven. A drone can contain electronic devices, artillery, detector devices, and target directors, which are aimed to impede or demolish opposing forces. ("military aircraft.") Top 3 (2012):
1. U.S.A.
2. India
3. Turkey Who has drones? Where does the U.S. stand? What are the issues? How has the gov't responded?
Military observations ("military aircraft.")
Master plans and operative planning ("military aircraft.")
Observations of battlegrounds ("military aircraft.")
Direct impact with release of arms ("military aircraft.")
Indirect impact- pinpointing areas for weapons to be released ("military aircraft.") Purpose of Drones: The Indeterminate Facts September 2011- April 2012: 50 drones to 7,500 drones (Zenko) 1. Is the usage of drones lawful?
2. Is it economically efficient? [Covert] Drone Strikes Pakistan
Yemen
Somalia (Shah, et al.) CIA vs. JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command) (Shah, et al.)
"Personality strikes" vs. "signature strikes" (Shah, et al.)
"Kill lists" (Shah, et al.)
Anwar Awlaki Lawful? Bush and Obama Administrations (Bellinger)
Authorization for the Use of Military Force [9/11/2001] (Bellinger)
War on terror vs. Al-Qaeda (Bellinger)
Targeted killings: drone strikes (Masters)
CIA vs. JSOC (Shah et al.)
Civilian deaths (Shane)
Lack of transparency (Zakaria) Economical? Drones vs. highly-trained teams (Robinson)
Small vs. big picture (Robinson)
Efficiency and context (Robinson)
Assessment of the situation (Robinson) 1. Reactions of each branch?
2. Administrations' policies? Government Policy
and Reactions Legislative Judicial Executive Authorization for the Use of Military Force [9/11/2001] (Bellinger)
Authorized targeting of a US citizen "who is a senior operational leader of al-Qaeda or an associated force" ("Drone Strikes Test Legal Grounds for War on Terror.")
Congress given updates (“Presidential Policy Directive")
Political divides and partisanship (Ungar)
Drone Wars: The Constitutional and Counterterrorism Implications of Targeted Killing, hearing for Senate Judiciary Hearing Committee 23/4/13 (increasing discussion) ("“LOCATION CHANGE AND TIME CHANGE: Drone Wars: The Constitutional and Counterterrorism Implications of Targeted Killing”.") Addressing constitutional issues as they arise ("Everything You Need to Know about Drone Strikes.")
Attorney General Eric Holder: "Due process takes into account the realities of combat" ("Everything You Need to Know about Drone Strikes.")
Anwar Awlaki case ("Everything You Need to Know about Drone Strikes.") Handling of 'transparency' issue and public opinion (Zakaria)
Bush Administration (2001- 2009)
Obama Administration (2009- 2017)
Use of congressional authorization ("Drone Strikes Test Legal Grounds for War on Terror.")
Department of Justice ("Presidential Policy Directive"
Relevant departments consulted ("Presidential Policy Directive") Presidential Administrations Republican
Bush Administration
(2001- 2009) Congressional authorization after 9'11 ("Drone Strikes Test Legal Grounds for War on Terror.")
Continued and recognized usage of drones as strategic military device ("Drone Strikes Test Legal Grounds for War on Terror.") VS. Democrat
Obama Administration
(2009- 2017) First reported drone strike (November, 2002) (Currier and Groeger)
45 drone strikes in Pakistan (Currier and Groeger)
Secret CIA base in Pakistan (Schmitt)
Lax regulations (Schmitt) Dramatic increase (Currier and Groeger)
Covert operations in Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia (Currier and Groger; Salter)
Shift in focus to Yemen (Currier and Groeger)
Defined drone strike process ("Everything You Need to Know about Drone Strikes."):
Assumption of terrorists (Currier and Groeger)
5/23/13 Speech: continued support but legal justification needed ("Presidential Policy Directive") " I will speak as long as it takes, until the alarm is sounded from coast to coast that our Constitution is important, that your rights to trial by jury are precious, that no American should be killed by a drone on American soil without first being charged with a crime, without first being found to be guilty by a court.
- Republican Junior Senator from Kentucky, Rand Paul
(Ungar) " [I have] never argued against any technology being used when you have an imminent threat, an active crime going on. If someone comes out of a liquor store with a weapon and fifty dollars in cash, I don’t care if a drone kills him or a policeman kills him.
-Republican Junior Senator from Kentucky, Rand Paul:
2 months later
(Ungar) " " For the record, I do not believe it would be constitutional for the government to target and kill any U.S. citizen with a drone or with a shotgun, without due process. Nor should any president deploy armed drones on U.S. soil... But when a U.S. citizen goes abroad to wage war against America – and is actively plotting to kill U.S. citizens; and when neither the United States, nor our partners are in a position to capture him before he carries out a plot – his citizenship should no more serve as a shield than a sniper shooting down on an innocent crowd should be protected from a swat team.
- President Barack Obama, May 23rd 2013
("President Barack Obama – Speech on Drones and Guantanamo Bay (May 23, 2013).”) " " Long-term impacts? 1. Global standing of U.S.
2. Public opinion
3. Military strategy Thesis Statement: The US policy of using aerial drones to carry out targeted killings presents a major challenge to the system of international law that has endured since the Second World War.
-UN Investigator Christof Heyns
(Bowcott) " " Use of CIA vs. military (Bowcott)
Relations with a troubled Yemen ("Council on Foreign Relations.")
Afghanistan comparison ("Council on Foreign Relations.")
Alienating people in foreign nations (IE Pakistan's ambassador to the UN) Thesis: Though the United States Military’s use of drones is cemented in the long-upheld principle of self-defense and the need to reduce threats to national security, questionable government power, potential unlawfulness due to the killing of civilian populations, and short and long-term costs have proliferated and begun to challenge such foundations. In response to such issues, the federal government has proved ineffective in providing any clear solutions, as the legislative and judicial branch struggle to open up discussion on a classified topic and the executive branch attempts to balance the pressures of public opinion with military needs. Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/aug/03/drone-stocks-by-country Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/aug/03/drone-stocks-by-country
Bellinger III, John B. "Is the American Use of Drones Legally Sound?" Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 9 May 2013. Web. 29 May 2013.
"Born in US, Al-Awlaki Was His Birth Nation's Sworn Enemy." TODAY.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
Bowcott, Owen. "Drone Strikes Threaten 50 Years of International Law, Says UN Rapporteur." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 21 June 2012. Web. 29 May 2013.
"Council on Foreign Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
Currier, Cora. "Drone Strikes Test Legal Grounds for War on Terror." Propublica. Pro Publica Inc., 6 Feb. 2013. Web. 31 May 2013.
Currier, Cora. "Everything You Need to Know about Drone Strikes." PBS. WNET.ORG, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 May 2013.
Currier, Cora, and Lena Groeger. "Timeline: How Obama Compares to Bush on Torture, Surveillance and Detention." Propublica. Pro Publica Inc., 10 May 2012. Web. 31 May 2013.
Gorman, Siobhan, and Adam Entous. "CIA Plans Yemen Drone Strikes." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 14 June 2011. Web. 20 May 2013.
"“LOCATION CHANGE AND TIME CHANGE: Drone Wars: The Constitutional and Counterterrorism Implications of Targeted Killing”." United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
Masters, Jonathan. "Targeted Killings" Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 23 May 2013. Web. 24 May 2013
Mathews, Dylan. "Everything You Need to Know about the Drone Debate, in One FAQ." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 8 Mar. 2013. Web. 29 May 2013.
"military aircraft." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 27 May. 2013.
Mirkinson, Jack. "White House Reporters Pepper Jay Carney With Questions About Drone Memo." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 05 Feb. 2013. Web. 29 May 2013.
Obama, Barack. "President Obama's Speech at National Defense University: The Future of Our Fight against Terrorism, May 2013." Speech. May 23 Speech on Counterterrorism. National Defense University, Washington, D.C. Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 23 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013. "President Barack Obama – Speech on Drones and Guantanamo Bay (May 23, 2013)." Rap Genius. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
Robinson, Linda. "Is Using Drones against Terrorists Cheaper than Using Special Forces?" Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 26 Apr. 2013. Web. 28 May 2013.
Sale, Jonathan. "The Secret History of Drones." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 10 Feb. 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
Schmitt, Eric. "Pakistan Shift Could Curtail Drone Strikes." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 22 Feb. 2008. Web. 31 May 2013.
Shah, Naureen, Rashmi Chopra, Janine Morna, Chantal Grut, Emily Howie, Daniel Mule, Zoe Hutchinson, and Max Abbott. "The Civilian Impact of Drones: Unexamined Costs, Unanswered Questions." Columbia Law School. Center for Civilians in Conflict (formerly CIVIC) and Human Rights Clinic at Columbia Law School, 2012. Web. 30 May 2013.
Shane, Scott. "The Moral Case for Drones." The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 July 2012. Web. 29 May 2013.
Slater, Emma. "Somalia: Reported US Covert Actions 2001-2013." The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, 22 Feb. 2012. Web. 31 May 2013.
"The Young Turks." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
Ungar, Rick. "Rand Paul Shockingly Now Supports The Use Of Drones On US Soil To Kill Americans-So What Was That Filibuster Thing All About?" Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 29 May 2013.
United States. Presidential Policy Directive: U.S. Policy Standards and Procedures for the Use of Force in Counterterrorism Operations Outside the United States and Areas of Active Hostilities. By Barack Obama. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 23 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
"unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 27 May. 2013.
Zakaria, Tabassum, and Mark Hosenball. "Pentagon to Take over Some CIA Drone Operations : Sources." Yahoo! News. Yahoo! Inc, 20 May 2013. Web. 31 May 2013.
Zenko, Micah, and Douglas D. Fellow. "Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2013. Works Cited Source:
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/unmanned-flight/horgan-text Source:
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/unmanned-flight/horgan-text Source:
http://www.time.com/time/covers/asia/0,16641,20130211,00.html Source:
Zenko, Micah, and Douglas D. Fellow. "Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2013. Source:
Shah, Naureen, Rashmi Chopra, Janine Morna, Chantal Grut, Emily Howie, Daniel Mule, Zoe Hutchinson, and Max Abbott. "The Civilian Impact of Drones: Unexamined Costs, Unanswered Questions." Columbia Law School. Center for Civilians in Conflict (formerly CIVIC) and Human Rights Clinic at Columbia Law School, 2012. Web. 30 May 2013. Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/136156/The-pilot-and-sensor-operator-of-a-US-Air-Force Source: Zenko, Micah, and Douglas D. Fellow. "Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2013. Source:
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/unmanned-flight/horgan-text Source:
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/unmanned-flight/horgan-text Source:
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/unmanned-flight/horgan-text
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