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Transcript of Dark Tourism
Beneficial for its economic development
a. Local community
1.Inrease the number of tourism-related services and products provided
a. Local Community
2.Reinvested money back to support the community’s social welfare development
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum
Is Dark Tourism ethical?
Let's discuss the dilemmas...
Impact on stakeholders
What is/are the stakeholder(s) of Dark tourism?
What is dark tourism?
How can Dark Tourism to be more ethical?
Operate and maintain an attraction requires human capital and financial capital (Charles & Shaun, 2011) E.g. labor resources , money
To practice conservation (Christina, Adele & John, 2005)
1. Commoditization VS Commercialization
Commoditization and commercialization arguably make dark tourism sites ethically unacceptable
“Profiting from loss”?
Make profit by visiting the dark tourism attractions
2. Keep the Authenticity of the Site
Distort its History and Story to Attract More Visitors
Immoral and inappropriate to present human sufferings in such a way of amusement (Urry, 1995)
Exaggerated or reshaped in order to attract tourists
Presented in a way that is less sensitive to the mass visitors (Beatriz, 2012)
1.The New York's Ground Zero Museum Workshop
Event of 911
Receive admission fee
USD for adults
Purpose: tour & operating cost
Visitors and travel companies for creating tourists experience and gaining profit
2.Boycott Burma Campaign
Tourism revenue benefits the country’s military dictators
(Ashworth & Hartmann,2005; Sharpley & Stone, 2009b; Wilson, 2008)
unfavorable impacts to local community
New Orleans neighborhood affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005
Local residents argued that..
"tourist activities didn’t put effort for recovering and show unrespectable to them"
Alcatraz in San Fransico
Chan Hei Tung, Melody 13108857D
Law Yin Lam, Aileen 13107945D
Tze Sze Ting, Raven 13043259D
Yu Ka Wai, Alexa 13108758D
1. Global Code of ethics
Article 4 suggested that...
“Financial resources derived from visits to cultural sites and monuments should…be used for the upkeep, safeguard, development and embellishment of this heritage.”
2. Impacts on stakeholders
3. Ethical issues
4. How can dark tourism to
be more ethical?
Turn into an elements of the popular “theme park” development (Rojek, 1993)
Global code of ethics
as ground rule..
Tourism receipt should be collected as funding for conservation.
Guided tours are operated by the ex-prisoners
“personal stories-telling” (Shackley, 2001)
Presented to all aging
Titanic museum in United Stated
The best possible care with preservation by using income from visitors will be taken to protect the exhibits
(Titanic Museum, 2012)
From the managerial aspect of operating an attraction,
income generated from visitors is profitable for conservation .(Christina, Adele & John, 2005)
Should we earn money from the dead?
Ghost house - Edinburgh and Toledo
Former is opened to adults and child
Latter is only opened to child
Actual delivery of the tours
Concerns about entertainment or education
Tragedy should not repeat and told as “stories” to the public
Aim at fitting consumer’s taste (Shackley, 2001)
Sophisticated when presenting the message to adults in compared with child
First hand experience sharing
Fair in the sense that the stories are told by the one who went through the history
Create job opportunities
Robben Island in South Africa
Transformation of the site into a prison museum
Commercial and recreational developments featured with enthusiastic shopping malls
Erase the history as a venue for punishment
Redevelopment of former prison is disrespectful to the dead
Designed to promote the victory of nationalism
Contribute to South Africa’s nation building enterprise
Decision made by Ahmed Kathrada, chairman of the Future of Robben Island Committee, former political prisoner, advisor and friend of President Nelson Mandela
“…we will not want Robben Island to be a monument to our hardship and suffering. We would want it to be a monument reflecting the triumph of the human spirit against the forces of evil, a triumph of freedom and human dignity over repression and humiliation…, a triumph of the new South Africa over the old.”
Prevent inspection and redevelopment of former prison
Preserve the monument
Respectful to the dead
History may be tortured
Praise ruling party
True meaning behind may be buried and forgotten
( New Orleans, Louisiana.2005)
John Knox's House(2010)
(Loo and Strange, 2000:35-36)
(Charles & Shaun, 2011)
Burma Tours & Holidays (2012)
Robben Island prison
e.g. tour guide, tour operator
1. Diversify and stabilize the local economy &bring revenues to gov't
Creates job opportunities
a. Local community
Graceland, home to Elvis Presley, welcomes over 600,000 visitors annually, brings 150 million dollars on Memphis every year.
Most of victims or survivals from disasters do not want...
Tourists witnessing their grief
Travel companies profiting from their loss (Stokes, 2013)
e.g. Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans,2006
Dark tourism hinder the local communities to restore a normal life, bad feeling towards profit from the dead
Make profit from loss
Disclose their weak and incompetent or the brutality
e.g. Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp in Berlin reveals the brutality of the country during World War II.
c. Private sector -
tour guide, tour operator
Regarded as unethical moneymakers
Hostile feelings from local community to private sectors
US Holocaust Memorial Museum and Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington affect US diplomatic & military policies these years
2.Gov't. can learn from history and prevent the turmoil from occurring again
May evoke negative emotions including... fear, horror, sadness, depression, empathy, sympathy, and feelings of vengeance .
(Krakover, 2005; Miles, 2002)
c. Private sector
1. Brings profits
Ground Zero has turned the financial district into one of the city's top attractions, average 1.8 million people a year
c. Private sector
Many shops selling twin tower T-shirts, toilet paper imprinted bin Laden's face, booklet about September 11 etc.
Tour guides charge USD $15 a head to point out the spot where the firefighters raised the flag
4 Types of benefits obtained
(Kang, Scott, Lee, & Ballantyne, 2011)
understand the world we live in, prevent &squarely face the similar issue that happens in the future
Built tighter because tourists have strong feelings of good fortune that none of their family had been victims of the incident
Express their thoughts towards the incident instead of just have fun from other forms of tourism
4.Comfort from achieving internal obligation
Namely therapeutic effect, especially for those who are suffering from survivor syndrome and/or survivor guilt
“act of travel to tourist sites associated with death, suffering or the seemingly macabre”
Features of dark tourism sites
Development of Dark Tourism
(Lennon, Foley, 2006)
Famous Dark tourism attractions
concentrarion camp in Nazi
Criminals Hall of Fame Wax Museum in Niagara Falls
Famous Dark tourism attractions
US Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Commoditization & commercialization
Presentation of histories or stories to tourists
Tortured of history with political forces
Local community development
Government & Tourists
Therefore, We support Dark tourism...
Negative feelings from local community
Discloses brutality of government
Arouses conflicts between private sector and local community
Evokes negative emotions among tourists.
Intensive and effective communication between government and the locals is required.
For local community..
For tour operator..
Strictly regulated and monitored
To prevent just-for-money business which causes strong resistance from the locals.
Should strive for a balance between local community and private sectors, let them get involve during planning time to reduce conflicts
2. Act as history and moral guardian
‘‘dark tourism may not only act as a guardian of history in heritage terms, but also as moral guardian of a contemporary society which appears to be
in a midst of resurgent effervescent moral vitality
’’ (Stones, 2009)
‘‘addressing the ethical and spiritual dichotomies’’
(Wight and Lennon, 2007)
A dark tourism attaction must be balance in both sides.
Especially for those attractions with controversial political implications.
Travel for different purposes:
Wish to commemorate for ancestors
Pay for a guided tour to learn history
Remain uninterested due to boredom
- Provoke different reactions among tourists
- Preserve and present in a proper way that is acceptable by the population
- Better managed
- Neutral position to tourists
Government of policy-makers control the management
Use of Dark Tourism sites
as a tool of the ruling party
Empower their dictatorship
Some dark tourism sites become a place for political promotion.
(Loo and Strange, 2000:35-36)
Destination government should emphasize more on return the benefits to the locals
e.g. support social welfare program, educational program
Can eceive more supports from the locals.
Pleasure and leisure are mixed with tragedy.
Keep the Authenticity
Participate more during the consultation period of tourism destination planning
Follow the rules and legislations of the government
Should not cross the border between ethics and profits
Preserve and respects the authenticity and intrinsic quality of the sites is more important than adding extrinsic “packing” just for earning money
All stakeholders have the responsibility to maintain a sustainable development of dark tourism.
Otherwise, all historical truth will be forgotten forever!!!