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Umayyad Finances

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Firas Alkhateeb

on 11 September 2011

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Transcript of Umayyad Finances

UMAYYAD FINANCES 661-750 CE Islamic Tax Guidelines -Islam dictates a 2.5% tax on all Muslims as charity
-There are no specific guidlines dictating taxation to support the government
-Non-Muslims have to pay the jizyah, a poll tax
-In return they can practice their religion freely, and are exempt from military service and zakah Umayyad Taxes -Besides booty captured in war, the main income for the Umayyad government was taxes
-Two main types of taxation: Jizyah and land taxes
-Muslims were exempt from any taxation
-The vast majority of government money came from taxes on non-Muslims Land Taxes -As the Umayyads conquered new land, land owned privately was not touched
-Landowners saw no difference between Byzantine/Persian rulers and Muslim ones
-This helped prevent civil disturbance/revolt since the majority of the empire was not Muslim -As the number of converts to Islam increased, tax revenues went down
-Non-Arabs in conquered areas converted to Islam because of belief in the message as well as tax breaks
-In order to prevent economic collapse, the Umayyads chose to continue to tax converts (but not people already Muslim)
-Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz abolished all taxes on Muslims
-His successor, Hisham, brought back only land taxes on converts
-The system was seen as unfair and was one reason for eventual revolt against the Umayyads Problems of Conversion
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