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Tinto's Theory of Departure
Transcript of Tinto's Theory of Departure
Vincent Tinto (1993) identifies 3 major sources of student departure in his framework: academic difficulties, the inability of individuals to resolve their educational and occupational goals, and their failure to become or remain incorporated in the intellectual and social life of the institution.
According to Tinto, students enter college with family and individual attributes as well as precollege schooling, with the intention to finish and stay in college. Tinto cites reasons for departure in this theory and touches on
Tinto's Theory of Departure
Tinto's based his model in Van Gennep's (1960) anthropological model of cultural rites of passage. Tinto believes students must separate from the group in which they were formerly associated, undergo a transition, and incorporate and adopt the normative behaviors of the new group (Kuh et al., 2006).
Why do students depart?
Tinto (1993) identifies 3 major sources of student departure in his framework: academic difficulties, the inability of individuals to resolve their educational and occupational goals, and their failure to become or remain incorporated in the intellectual and social life of the institution (Kuh et al., 2006).
In Tinto's theory, academic and social integration are complementary but independent processes in a student's life.
Academic and social integration leads to greater commitment to institution and graduation (Bean, 1983).
Bean, J. P. (1983). The Application of a Model of
Turnover in Work Organizations to the Student Attrition Process. The Review of Higher Education, 6(2): 129-148.
Demetriou, C. & Schmitz-Sciborski, A. (2011).
Integration, motivation, strengths and optimism: Retention theories past, present and future. In R. Hayes (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th National Symposium on Student Retention, 2011, Charleston. (pp. 300-312). Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma.
Karp, M., Hughes, K., and O'Gara, L. 2008. An
exploration of Tinto's integration framework for community college students. Columbia University.
Kuh, G., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J., Bridges, B., & Hayek,
J. 2006. What matters to student success: A review of the literature. National Postsecondary Education Cooperative.
Long, D. (2012). Theories and models of student
development. In L. J. Hinchliffe & M. A. Wong (Eds.), Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 41-55). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries.
Tinto, V. (1975). Dropouts from higher education:
A theoretical synthesis of recent literature. A Review of Educational Research, 45, 89-125.
Vincent Tinto first introduced his concept of retention in 1975. His model theorizes that students who socially integrate into the campus community increase their commitment to the institution and are more likely to graduate (Tinto, 1975).
This "integration model" has changed many times over the course of time.
- Compliance with explicit norms
(passing grades, following policy in residence hall)
- Compliance with normative values (valuing arts over sciences for an art student)
- Student finds the institution aligns with individual background, values, and aspirations.
- Measured by peer to peer interactions and faculty student interactions.
8 of 11 multi institutional studies have linked academic integration and persistence, supporting Tinto's theory.
Who is included?
Tinto (1993) identified different student groups, such as African American students, students from low-income families, adult students and transfer students, with unique experiences requiring group-specific interventions and policies. (Demetriou & Schmitz-Sciborski, 2011).
Tinto's (1993) Recommendations
- Colleges and universities must integrate students deliberately academically, socially, and intellectually with the culture of the institution.
- Colleges and universities should create opportunites for extracurricular activities, informal student interactions, and faculty/student interactions.
- In viewing this video, how do you think the University of Maine addresses preventing departure at the beginning of the year for students?
- How can the university improve its messaging in regards to retention of students?