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Everything You Need To Know For Your First Semester Biology Final

Exactly what the title says
by

Tyler Ruzicka

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Everything You Need To Know For Your First Semester Biology Final

BIOLOGY Everything you need to know for your first semester biology final. Essential Learning 1: Complex molecules :Capillarity the study of life Adhesion/Cohesion: attraction of molecules water moves up a tube using adhesion/cohesion Hydrogen bond: Bond between water molecules :Polar uneven pattern of charge ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate, source of energy :Alcohol organic molecule with hydroxyl group Condensation Reaction/Hydrolysis: polymers become monomers ad vice versa Functional Group: cluster of atoms that influence the
properties of the molecules they compose Monomer/Polymer/Macromolecule: Different sizes of organic compound molecules Organic compounds: Compounds that contain carbon atoms covalently bonded to other elements Amino acids/Dipeptide/Polypeptide: Different protein molecules Monosaccharide/Disaccharide/Polysaccharide: Different Carbohydrate molecules Fatty acid/Wax/Triglyceride/Phospholipid/Steroid: Type of lipids Large, non-polar molecules that
DO NOT dissolve in water Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic: water-fearing/loving Isomer: Different forms of the same compound that share the same chemical formula Nucleic Acid: Large, complex organic molecules
that store genetic information Nucleotide: Repeating monomers in DNA and RNA; contains phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base :Peptide Bond covalent bond that holds 2 amino acids together RNA: Molecule that stores and transfers information for the manufacturing of proteins Substrate: substance being catalyzed by and enzyme Essential Learning 2: Scientific Method Reproduction: Organisms transmit genetic
information to their offspring Asexual: Hereditary information from
one cell gives rise to another :Sexual Combination of egg and sperm
from parents to form offspring Autotrophs/Heterotrophs Organisms that eat/produce Differentation: process through which cells
specialize during development DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid Ecosystem/Ecology: environmental communities and the study of ecosystems :Evolution/Evolve change over time Gene: short segment of DNA that controls a single trait Homeostasis: maintaining a stable
internal environment Multicellular/Unicellular Organisms: Organisms with many/one cell/s Any living thing :Natural Selection Driving force behind evolution Photosynthesis: process through which sunlight and water are combined to make sugars and carbon dioxide. Cell Division: Formation of 2 cells from an existing cell :Development Process by which an adult organism arises Metabolism: Sum of all chemical processes
that occur in an organism Experimental Group/Control Group: Groups in an experiment, where the only difference is whether it has the independent variable Scientific Method: Hypothesis Experiment Observation Prediction Data experiment based
on the comparison
of an experimental
and a control group controlled
experiment Dependent variable: Effect that occurs due to
the independent variable Independent variable: variable that is tested in
a controlled experiment Inference: conclusion made on
the basis of facts,
rather than direct
observations -perceive -see ahead -guess Test- -Organize your findings model: shows relationships,
supported by data Sampling: using a small part of a population
to represent the entire population Theory: Broad, comprehensive statement
of what is thought to be true SI/base units/
derived units: system of units of measurement Compound Light Microscope: microscope that uses light passing
through an eyepiece and an objective
lens to magnify objects Electron Microscope: uses a beam of electrons
to magnify images scanning electron microscope-scans transmits-transmission electron microscope Parts: microscope-tool used to magnify objects nosepiece-structure used to support the objective lens in a compound light microscope objective lens-lens of various magnifications used to enlarge images ocular lens-lens found in the eyepiece of a compound light microscope stage-holds the slide on a compound electron microscope
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