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Geography Chapter 29
Transcript of Geography Chapter 29
-Indonesia is the largest country in the region.
-The country of Singapore is a collection of one large island and more than 50 smaller ones.
-More than 7000 islands make up the Philippines.
-Many of the islands that form Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines have not been named. Inland Southeast Asia Physical Features Mountains
-Mountains dominate Southeast Asian landscapes. Most peaks crew below 10 000 feet.
-The mountains create geographic and political boundaries.
-The Indochina Peninsula separates the region from India to China.
-Mountains on Southeast Asia's islands form part of the Ring of Fire.
-These mountains are actually volcanoes, many of which are still active.
-Mineral-rich volcanic material that has broken down over the centuries has left rich, fertile soil, making Southeast Asia's islands highly productive agriculture areas. Volcanoes of Indonesia and the Philippines.
-327 volcanoes stretch across Indonesia.
-Java (an Indonesian island) is home to 17 of Indonesia's 100 active volcanoes.
-Some scientists believe that the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the 20th century's most powerful eruption (located 55 miles north of the Philippine capital of Manilla) -Southeast Asia's people rely on waterways for transportation, communication, and food.
- Major mainland rivers include the Irrawaddy in Myanmar, the Chao Pharaya, and the Red.
-The Mekong (which begins its 2600 mile journey in China, forms the border between Thailand and Laos.
-Most rivers in Indonesia run south to north cutting vertically across the narrow islands. Southeast Asia Chapter 29 Budapest San
Francisco -Southeast Asia was created by Eurasian, Philippine, and Indo-Australian tectonic plates colliding million of years ago.
-The mainland of Southeast Asia is Indochina Peninsula and the Malay Peninsula
-The Malay archipelago contains 20,000 islands. Peninsulas and Islands Mainland Southeast Asia
-About half of Southeast Asia's 11 countries are located on the mainland.
-Laos is the region's only country without a coastline.
-Vietnam, Laos, Combodia, Myanmar, and most of Thailand lie entirely on the Indochina Peninsula.
-Malaysia shares the Malay Peninsula with Thailand. Natural Resources Minerals and Gems Fishing -Southeast Asia is rich for the natural resources such as: fossil fuels, natural stream, minerals, and gems.
-Malaya’s section major export is petroleum
-Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines mine coal.
-Borneo has oil and natural gas rich deposits.
-The island of Sumatra supplies two-thirds of Indonesia’s oil, and oil and gas are country’s main exports. -Indonesia mines nickel and iron, and the Philippines mine copper.
-Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, and Malaysia mine tin.
-Indonesia and Malaysia are worlds largest producers of tin.
-Sapphires and Rubies and be found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. -The region boasts the world’s largest flower, the Rafflesia arnoldii, a spectacular plant with a blossom three feet wide.
-Thailand cultivates over 1000 species of orchids.
-Indonesia is the worlds largest supplier of plywood.
- Elephants, tigers, rhinoceroses, and orangutans roam the regions wildlife sanctuaries and national parks.
- South Asia is a home for a animals such as: Borneo’s bearded pig,the Malaysian lacewing butterfly, and the Komodo dragon. Flora and Fauna -More than 2500 species of fish swim the tropical waters of Southeast Asia.
-Fish thrive in the mainland rivers and in the seas near the Philippines, Indonesia, and Myanmar.
-Fish farming is an important part of the regions economy.
-Southeast Asians consume seafood at almost twice the worlds average rate. Section Two -Southeast Asia gets seasonal winds called monsoons. In summer, moist monsoons blow in from cooler seas.
-Winter air on land is cooler than over the water, blowing dry monsoons out to sea. Tropical Climate Regions -Southeast Asia is dominated by tropical forests.
-Parts of the mainland and islands have tropical rain savanna and subtropical climates.
-These climate regions are made of grasslands and tropical forests that help the ecosystem. Tropical Rainforest Climate -Most of the region, including the coastal areas and islands, have a Tropical Rainforest Climates.
-There are barely any differences in temperature and mostly wet conditions almost year-round.
-Hot, humid, and rainy conditions are created by the average daily temperature (79 degrees F)
-This climate supports a diverse ecosystem with more than 14 500 species of flowers in just Malaysia.
-The Malaysian forest may be the regions oldest forest dating back many millions of years.
-Some trees make organic compounds that are used for medicines and varnishes. Singapore -Once an island covered by dense rain forest and surrounded by mangrove trees, Singapore now has one of the highest population density's in the world (17 155 people per square mile). Population: 4 000 000
-Because Singapore is mostly urbanized, its endemic species are mostly gone.
-80% of the trees and shrubs in Singapore are imported from Central and South America.
-Singapore is one of only two cities in the world that have areas of tropical rain forests within their boundaries. (The other is Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) Tropical Savanna Climate -The second most prominent climate zone, the tropical savanna sweeps southeastward across the Indochina Peninsula and along the southeastern parts of Indonesia.
-Alternate wet and dry seasons characterize this climate, which supports tropical grasslands with scattered trees and some forests.
-On the Indochina Peninsula, dry seasons can last 4-6 months.
-On the mainland, summer monsoon winds bring rain.
-October-April are winter dry seasons. During this time, it is cold but turns hot by the end of the season.
-In southern Indonesia, south of the Equator, the wet and dry cycles are reversed.
-May-September tradewinds bring hot, dry season. October-April monsoons bring rain.