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Omar Badr & Mohamed darwish Sociology
Transcript of Omar Badr & Mohamed darwish Sociology
Income and Wealth
Division of society into classes, ranks, or categories.
: A group of people who share the similar amount of wealth, power & prestige.
Predicted that capitalist societies would ultimately be reduced to two social classes:
1. Bourgeoisie: Those who own the means of production.
2. Proletariat: The workers who sell their labor in exchange for wages.
Stratification is the division of society into classes that have unequal amounts of wealth, power, and prestige.
Power - Ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will.
Where does power come from?
1. Knowledge - Example: Lawyers - Convert expertise into political power.
2. Fame - Example: Albert Einstein - was offered the presidency of Israel.
3. Social position - Example: Senior Class President vs. Class Council member.
Prestige Dimension: Max Weber
Recognition, respect and admiration attached to social position.
given, not claimed
People with similar levels of prestige share similar and identifiable
In America, most people achieve prestige because of their
(white-collar higher than blue-collar)
Each of the two perspectives - Functionalist and Conflict theory, - Explain stratification in society in a different way.
Stratification assures that the most
people fill the most important positions, that they perform their tasks competently, and that they're rewarded for their efforts.
exists because certain jobs are more important than others - these jobs often involve special
(reason why doctors make more money and prestige than bus drivers).
Functionalist Theory of Stratification
Inequality exists because some people are willing to take advantage others.
Stratification is based on
rather than on people voluntarily agreeing to it – based on Karl Marx's ideas regarding class conflict.
Conflict Theory of Stratification
Social Classes in America:
Sociologists have identified several social classes in the United States. They include:
Approximately 1% of the population ~ 300 million people
Much of the country's "old money," along with entertainers and athletes - access to wealth, power, and prestige
Occupations: Investors, heirs, chief executive officers (CEO), politicians, etc.
Upper Middle Class
High-income members of society who are well educated but do not belong to the elite super wealthy ~ $100,000+ and 15% of the population
These people occupy professional positions and have achieved a level of income that makes them comfortable.
Occupations: Upper level managers, small business owners, lawyers, doctors, etc.
Almost half of Americans claim they are middle class but in reality middle class is only about 30% of the population.
Middle class people have moderate incomes from $40,000-$80,000. Education of the middle class includes a high school diploma plus some technical school or college degree.
Occupations: lower-paid white-collar (ex: teachers), well-paid blue-collar (ex: factory foreman), skilled laborer (ex: electrician)
Approximately 30% of the population and its members hold jobs that usually require manual labor or clerical skills.
Incomes range from $25,000 -$35,000 and education is usually high school diploma.
Occupations: Truck drivers, machine operators, salespeople, clerical, etc.
The working poor consists of people employed in low-skill jobs and the lowest pay. Members make up about 12-13% of the population and earn average of $20,000 - $25,000.
Employment is usually views and unstable and members may slip below the poverty line (family of 4: $17,603 in 2000 but $23,050 in 2012).
Occupations: Lowest-level clerical workers, and some service workers (ex: fast-food servers), etc.
Members of the underclass are approximately 11-12% of the population and are usually unemployed and who come from families with a history of unemployment for generations. They either work part-time or are on public assistance. The average yearly income is less than $15,000.
In addition to lack of education and skills, many members of the underclass have other problems: physical or mental disabilities and single mothers with little to no income.
Poverty in America
The poor in the U.S. are disproportionately represented by African Americans, Latinos, women, and children.
Amount of money received by an individual or group over a specific time period (Ex: paycheck)
Total economic resources held by a person or group (what you own)
Poverty in the U.S.
sets an annual income level and considers people poor if their income is
that level - 2000: $17,603 for a family of four but $23,050 in 2012
2000 Census Bureau reported that the poor compromised 11.8% (32 million people), 2009 data was at 14.3% (43.6 million people), 2012 data is at
(46.2 million people)
Most Disadvantaged Groups in the U.S.
Children under 18
People with disabilities
People living alone
, the movement of individuals or groups within the stratification structure, is usually measured by changes in
Sociologists are most interested in upward or downward
mobility. Closed-class systems disallow little vertical mobility, open-class systems, such as those in industrialized countries, allow mobility
Types of Social Mobility
Social mobility: The movement of individuals or groups between social classes
Horizontal mobility: Movement within between social classes.
Vertical mobility: a change upward or downward in social class.
Intergenerational mobility: A change in status or class from one generation to the next.
Open and Closed Systems
-class: A stratification structure that does not allow for social mobility (
-class: a system in which social class is based on individual
movement is allowed between classes
(Example of closed-class)
India - four primary caste categories (based on occupation, Hindu religion)
1. Brahmans - Priests, scholars
2. Kshatriyas - Professional, governing, military occupations
3. Vaisyas - Merchants, businessmen
4. Sudras - Farmers, menial workers, craftsmen
- Below all castes are the untouchables - thought to be so impure that physical contact contaminates the religious purity of all other caste members (collect trash, handle dead bodies) Dalits.
Upward and Downward Mobility
- both historical and fictional - of upward mobility.
After WWII, the
and increased availability of higher-paying
jobs made upward mobility relatively easy.
is making upward mobility more difficult.