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Causes of WWI WHAP
Transcript of Causes of WWI WHAP
Extreme pride in one's nation/country.
IT and GY newly formed, so they have something to prove.
Desire for independence or autonomy be ethnic groups, especially in the Balkans.
Region known as Powder Keg of EUR for that very reason.
Competition by EUR powers for territory in Africa and Asia
Shrinking available land led to tensions between "core" nations.
Mass production of deadly weapons.
Arms race between BR and GY
Rival alliance systems developing
GY, AUS, and IT
BR, FR, and RU
The fuse that lit the war
All of these causes combined to create heightened tension.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was next in line to AUS throne.
Serbian nationalists (Black Hand) plot to assassinate him.
Gavrilo Princip shot the Archduke and his wife.
AUS uses this to invade Serbia, who were Slavic.
Slavic big bro? Russia.
Shifted pre-war alliances
Central Powers: AUS, OTT, BUL, GY
Allied Powers: BR, FR, RU, BEL, IT, JP, MONT, Serbia, and US.
GY said they would back AUS no matter what, so when AUS invades Serbia, Russia declares war which sets off the rival alliances.
Causes of WWI
it was MANIA!
Short Term Advantages
GY had the best trained and equipped army in the world (shout out Prussian militaristic society)
GY industrial capacity was better set up for conversion to wartime production.
Long Term Advantages
More men of military age (thanks RU)
More factories even though conversion was more difficult (thanks BR and US)
Stronger navy (thanks BR) and able to blockade the Central Powers.
Features of WWI
Both sides thought the war would be short (lol)
GY to attack and defeat FR quickly then turn to RU before they could mobilize.
After the first six months, dug in for Trench Warfare on the Western and Eastern fronts.
Fighting then spread to include OTT and African colonies.
New Military Technology
Shoutout to the Industrial Revolution!
Kanye West of battleships.
stronger, faster, better.
BR machine gunes fired 8 rounds per second. Much fast than single-fire, short range rifle.
Greater power and carried much further.
24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun alone.
Poison gas, flame throwers
Airplanes, submarines, and tanks
US Enters the War
During first part of war, US "isolationist"
Sinking of the Lusitania, u-boat attacks on US ships, and the Zimmerman note brought the US in (April 1917)
War ends with armistice Nov. 11th, 1918.
Armistice= end fighting w/o a winner.
War begins a stalemate (neither side has advantage), both sides start to conduct trench warfare
Western Front (GY/FR border)
Casualties of Modern Weaponry
Casualties= dead, wounded, missing, AWOL, POW
Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn't work against modern weapons
Charging into "No Man's Land" led to massive casualties.
Total losses exceeded 10 million.
full economic production and political power of nations engaged in military victory
Civilian participation and sacrifice
rations, donation drives, etc.
Seemed to lower the value of humanity
Civilians became legitimate targets
GY's unrestricted submarine warfare
Cities as artillery targets.
Paris Peace Conference 1919-1920
Met at the palace of Versailles for over a year.
Over 40 countries represented, however US, BR, FR, and IT dominated talks and were called the BIG FOUR
Two Motives for Peace
Peace of Justice
US Wilson introduced his 14 Points that would stop all future wars.
14 Points: League of Nations, and self-determination for all nations
Peace of Vengeance
IT and BR wanted territory
FR wanted to punish GY
IT and US eventually left, leaving the peace settlement to FR and BR.
Treaty of Versailles
$32 Billion war reparations (payments) for GY.
War guilt clause.
Demilitarized- GY had to have less than 100,000 troops.
Failed League of Nations
Organization set up to mediate between member nations.
US Congress refused to join, dooming the league to failure without the world's leading superpower.
The League didn't have any enforcement power.
Life gets rough for Germany
Due to the harsh nature of the Versailles Treaty, many Germans deeply resented the Allied powers AND the Germans who signed the Treaty.
German currency decreased from 4 marks to 1 US dollar to more than 1 trillion marks to 1 US dollar.
Weimar Republic set up instead of a monarchy, but was too weak and fragmented.
This led many Germans to seek radical alternatives.
Fall of Empires
RU= lost 1/4 territory w/ treaty w/ GY in 1917.
AUS= divided into many countries
AUS, HG, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia.
OTT= democratic nation of Turkey led by Mustafa Kemal "Ataturk"
1917 Tsar Nicholas II resigned, leading to a provisional democratic gov't led by Kerensky (February Revolution).
They stayed in the war initially, and got out too late on too bad of terms.
Fell to Communism under Lenin in the Bolshevik Revolution (October Revolution) who withdrew RU frm WI (Treaty of Brest-Livosk)
India= 1 million troops to BR
200,000 GURKHA soldiers from Nepal/India. Specialty fighting force. Won many victories in the Middle East for BR.
Africa= troops sent to aid GY, BR, and FR.
Australia/New Zealand= ANZAC, who fought in the Middle East. Also marked a beginning of nationalist sentiment in AUS and NZ.
Arabs in Middle East also fought for BR to defeat the Ottomans.
Left MANY old issues unresolved
“What is the future of imperialism?”
“Can military tech be controlled in colonies?”
“How would the colonial nationalsit movements be dealt with?”
New issues develop
“What to do with Communist Russia?”
“How do recover from the devasting damages from WWI?”
Major Impacts of the War
GY and OTT lose overseas colonies
Mandate System fomed
"Caretake" colonies until LON believes colonies "ready" for independence.
Reality, just added to FR and BR's empires.
FR= Syria, Lebanon
BR= Palestine, Jordan
Not the smartest most as it gave colonial nationalist leaders military training and equipment. AND also gave general populous "enlightenment" ideas and a sense of national pride.
Bavarian Troops- shoutout to Lexi!