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A-Z Book on Africa's History
Transcript of A-Z Book on Africa's History
Cape town is a very important city in South Africa. The first European to discover the cape and eventually create a colony there was Bartholomeu Dias, a portuguese explorer. A series of wars were fought to gain this great piece of land and people say that this started the colony of Cape Town. Later on, slaves were also brought, along with more Europeans.
Apartheid was a system of laws that added even more structure to the racial segregation and dominance that was already in the nation. Apartheid separated many South Africans, even children, in education, jobs, & public places. Apartheid finally ended in 1990 when president F.W. de Klerk announced an end to the apartheid.
By Sneha and Heidi
A Summary of Africa's History
Africa had a rather brutal history as they tried to fight from European influences. The slave trade was one of the reasons why the Europeans have decided to settle and dominate the new land full of valuable resources. Slaves could work for owners without pay and were treated harshly. Much of the land was divided by world powers and this led to conflicts and confusion between the native people, Europeans, and tribal groups. Eventually, over decades of wars and conflicts, countries of Africa had independence. But still the conflicts continued because of racial discrimination and segregation. As people of all races struggled to live in the torn countries, protests and rebellions swept through streets demanding freedom and equality for all. The U.S was also suffering from the same problems. Throughout history, black South Africans never got equal rights and freedom. Many leaders became famous because of these situations as they tried to find and solution for peace and apartheid. Today, Africa stands as a culturally diverse country with a sad, but rich history with other countries around the world.
The Bantu religion and culture is an old civilization which eventually spread throughout Africa. Many hundreds of languages were formed from the Bantu religion after the Bantus divided into groups all across the lower half of Africa. The most important language that came from Bantu is Swahili, especially in east Africa .
Europeans were a cause of destruction and new development in all the countries of Africa. They first arrived in South Africa and ended up using the race of non-whites as an example of second class. While many countries were struggling against the control of european countries, many of the societies were improving as well. Gradually, the european countries let go of the african countries and granted independence.
Freedom was granted with lots of difficulty in Africa. When the europeans arrived, they took total control over the countries' freedom. They also used the non-whites as slaves all around the world. Eventually, over a long period of time, blacks gained their freedom and so did their countries.
A democratic government was created in South Africa after apartheid was terminated. This gave rise to free elections in the 'new' country. A new series and set of laws were formed and together, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk created a new constitution and helped the country take its first steps into democracy. Eventually, other countries soon followed (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
The Hutus are one of the many ethnic groups that emigrated from the Bantu expansion. They live around Central Africa and speak Rwanda-Rundi. Africa history states that the colonization of the europeans seperated the Hutus from many ethnic groups such as the Tutsis. Many wars have also been fought between the two and continued tension remains today.
outh League, ANC
Imperialism is control by one country over another country's gov., culture, and trade, which is exactly what the Europeans did to Africa. The cause for Imperialism was the europeans' want for gold, other natural resources, and the desire to expand their colonies. This resulted in positive categories such as the British' knowledge for treatment of diseases, but also bad things such as limited freedom for Africans.
During the first time of Apartheid, many non-whites were given lower class type jobs. It was especially unfair since the whites got 10 times better job opportunities. Since non-whites weren't able to gain decent jobs, the average salary a black would earn was around $800/year, which led to a majority of the black population in poverty.
They are the native people of south-west Africa. The first encounters with europeans were conveyed with violence. The Khoi-Khoi civilation was damaged and soon destroyed by the european expansion. The remaining Khois were often discriminated by whites.
Liberia was established by the U.S. as a colony for the former African slaves. The U.S. had a long history of getting involved with Liberia's affairs, occasionally helping out the freed slaves. Liberia and Ethiopia were also the only countries who were not colonized and remained independent.
Nelson Mandela was a couragous man who was first jailed by leading the anti-apartheid group called the African National Congress. He served jail for about 18 years and was freed by F.W. de Klerk. They worked together to end apartheid. Then Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa.
Slavery was a very traumatic experience for black Africans. When the europeans first arrived, they thought of themselves as the "dominant" race and decided upon the non-whites to become laborers for them. Slavery was eventually abolished in most countries. But some blacks still have not been fully "freed".
The Zulu are the largest South African ethnic group that along with others, faced much discrimination under apartheid. During the Anglo-Zulu war, they were known to have fought against the British for their land. They gained a victory, but unfortunately, the British ended up winning. Their temporary victory was very important since their weapons (knifes & torches) were no match against the advanced weapons of the British.
The Gold Coast was along the Westeren coast of Africa. It's a British colony known for valuable trading items such as ivory, gold, precious stones. The Gold Coast is now the independent nation of Ghana
Nationalism is the feeling of pride and loyalty of one's own nation. In Africa, being colonized by european countries brought a feeling of nationalism to them. Africans developed more pride in their own cultures and identities. This brought together many countries and they worked together to gain independence, fueled by nationalism
Cecil Rhodes was a major proponent in expanding the British empire. He also wanted to expand the colony from south to north Africa. He dreamt of building a railroad all the way from Cape Town to Cairo, Egypt.
When world war 1 broke out, the French and British started training Africans to fight in their military. The blacks obliged and set out of their own countries, where they were introduced with news from all over the world. As they stayed out of Africa most of the time, they came across the fact that they were fighting Germany because it started taking over many other countries, just as the european countries were doing to Africa. With this newfound info. they decided it was time to fight back
The African National Congress Youth League is a group that branchs off from the ANC, The group was founded by Nelson Mandela in 1944. It's goal is to teach teens about racism, discrimination and help improve the community and the world.
The Xhosa's are one of Africa's main tribal groups with a population of 7.9 million people. Their language is made up of a bunch of tongue clicks. The word ''xhosa'' came from the Khoisian language meaning ''angry men''.
Pan Africanism is a movement dedicated to establish independence in African countries. The movement begin when European countries were ruling Africa but they wanted to be free from colonialism. It was made up of all African countries as a unity.
range Free State
A Boer state in South Africa. It became a province in 1910. Many Boers inhabits this area.
The Europeans dominated and took control much of Africa during the early 1900's. Because of conquest in Africa, colonizalism and apartheid happened. Not many countries had independence.
The Triangular Trade was between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Many things were traded. Slaves and goods were traded across the Atlantic.
The African Union (AU) is a union made up of 54 African states. It promotes work between the states as a unity. It was established on May 26 2001.
The slave trade was between Europe, the Americas and Africa. It was also part of the Triangular Trade as slaves went abroad on ships to work in other countries. Millions of slaves were traded, and thousands of them died.