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Facilitation Training 101 - FULL TEST

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alexandre dachs

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Facilitation Training 101 - FULL TEST

Facilitation Training Programme Introduction 2004 survey commissioned by Interactive Meeting Solutions (2004b) Why a Facilitation Training programme? Main objective To develop an
“Effective Meeting Culture”
in Crown technology Part 1
- Training for Effective Facilitation of meetings (this 1 day course)

Part 2
- Practising to facilitate a meeting on...
(an actual meeting) There are actually 2 parts: Part 1

Start 9.00
AM Break 11.00
Lunch Break 13.00
PM Break 16.00
Finish 17.30 Agenda Review and Download Time

Reflect on what you have learnt during this session
- Capture the 3 most important ideas to you
- As a result, identify what actions you will take 10 Steps to Successful Facilitation: Step Ten - Evaluate the Facilitation Session

Conducting a Self-Evaluation

Having the Group Critique Itself

Having the Group Evaluate the Facilitator

Having a Trained Observer Conduct the Evaluation Perfect your Facilitation skills August 12 At the conclusion of the facilitated meeting it is important to wrap up properly.

Debriefing Session:

Review and summarize what was covered and list items still pending that would require another meeting

Discuss any questions to ensure everyone has the same perspective

Make sure each member is able to state what he/she is going to do and when

End on time (or a few minutes early) Closing Time Given the amount of time that people spend in meetings, isn't it surprising how seldom the effectiveness of a meeting is evaluated? Section 4
Closing and evaluating the Facilitation Session Open Forum Discussion

« Handling Difficult Situations » Alarm - Hijack! discussing this? Do you want to keep your point We’ve listened to you’d… I can see why has said… on what John Let me build
Respect your audience

Be fair

Get tough

Ask your audience There are Questions and Questions...
Useful question
Check that you’ve answered in full
Less useful question
“If you need more on that, we’ll talk later…”
Unhelpful question
Avoid eye contact and move on Handling Questions
Make it clear when participants can ask questions
Repeat or rephrase the question
Open up the question to the group
Work the room
Control the timing Exercise - Multicultural Groups and Language Issues  Time Allowed = 10 min. + 5 min. (for group feedback)

Prepare a presentation for your feedback
Let’s do a small team exercise:
- What should a facilitator be paying special attention to?
 Think different cultures and origins
 Think different languages
 Think different genders Handling difficult situations
When things go wrong...
- don’t rehash, don’t blame

- remain calm
- keep your sense of humour

Handling participants’ complaints
- see who can help you deal with the issue

- remain neutral
- ask for a solution – if OK, apply Exercise – Chunking up and down
We chunk down to get details and distinctions. We also chunk down to maintain agreement for action.

What are examples of this?
What specifically?
What prevents me from achieving this outcome? Hierarchy of ideas - Chunk Down
We chunk up to get agreement. We also chunk up to separate intention from behaviour.

What is this an example of?
For what purpose?
What is your intention?
If I got this outcome, what would that get for me? Hierarchy of ideas - Chunking Up Agreement Specific
Conflict Hierarchy of Ideas describes how to master the art of communication by controlling the flow of conversation or ideas from abstract to specific, and vice versa. Handling Conflicts – Hierarchy of ideas Some tricks that might help - Yes-anding
« Yes, and …… » (park the issue)
- Cutting off:
« We have time for one more idea –
what did you want to say again, Yves ? »
Reasons to intervene:

wandering off track;


non-participating or angry participant;

autocratic behaviour August 12 Determine Whether and When to Intervene If you recognize habitual difficult behaviour, keep three things in mind:

Behaviour that is rewarded gets repeated.

Address the difficult behaviour.

Change the team dynamics. Difficult behaviour The Prisoner So what do you do?
- try and draw him/her into the learning
- avoid spending an excessive amount of time
(should he/she become too disruptive)
He/she is there because
he/she has to be
His/her first approach will
be to challenge
The second approach may
be complete indifference and
abandonment The Vacationer
Make time to draw him/her
into the group discussion

Use small group activities Handling difficult participants Some characters that are easy to recognise

- The Learner

- The Vacationer

- The Prisoner Handling Groups and Individuals Questions to Promote Decision Making Questions to Promote Decision Making Say:

I'm glad you brought that up.
That's an interesting thought.
Okay, let's build on that.
You're on the right track. What else?
Good idea. Who else has a suggestion? Avoid:

Too risky. Let someone else try that first.
We tried that once and it didn't work.
That won't work.
It'll cost too much.
It'll take too much time.
It's not practical.
We never do things like that. Successful facilitators know how to actively engage a group. They say the right things in the right ways to invite input and keep it coming! Inviting Communication August 12 Guided Discussion: Enable facilitators to ask the group a series of planned questions designed for a purpose

Storytelling: Stories are often memorable, people like to hear the Good stories have beginnings and endings

Humor: Improve, maintain, and enhance participant interest
Item/Joke must be relevant to the session topic
Avoid controversial topics and mild cursing, stay clean etc…

Quotations: Before you use a quote be sure of its authenticity

Analogies Tactics To Assist The Meeting Ask all attendees (including those in the room) to state their names when they begin speaking.

Call on the phone participants at some point during each significant conversation. It may be that they want to join in but just can't be heard.

Make sure conversation is verbalized—no head nods or other nonverbal body language. If There Are Telephone Participants in Your Meeting Methods to reinforce positive behaviours Reinforce verbally, show appreciation by nodding, etc.

Stay with participant during his/her comments

Repeat participant’s statement

Add clarifying information in a rewarding manner

Ask participant to take a lead/proactive role Some examples of positive participant behaviour
Arrives early
Asks questions
Helps to keep the group on the topic
Volunteers for projects and tasks
Keeps eye contact
Spontaneously gives examples
Body language indicates he/she is listening , Disruptive behaviour Facilitating a meeting “At the end of the meeting, I will have achieved much more than the original meeting objectives….

…..Everyone will be sorry that the meeting came to an end.” Visualisation techniques “I am calm and confident as I stand in front of my participants…..

…..I go through my meeting clearly and thoroughly, making it an enjoyable experience for them.” Affirmation techniques “I am breathing deeply and slowly, exhaling all my cares and worries….

…..my head, my neck, my shoulders, my arms, my hands … all are loose and relaxed.” Relaxation techniques Relaxation
Visualisation Building Confidence and Enthusiasm Handling Stress and Stage Fright Hyper Stress Hypo Stress Exercise - Stress and Stage Fright Brainstorming Exercise


Experiencing « Stress and Stage Fright » , Relaxation, affirmation, visualisation Stress and Stage Fright Handling Groups and Individuals, Stress and Stage Fright Section 3
Building Confidence and Enthusiasm The Pragmatist As a Participant
- Looking for practical applications
- “How to” tools and techniques
- Opportunities to try things out
- Role simulations and models
- Sense of reality
- Wants “expert” advice
What the facilitator needs to do
- Include practical activities with coaching and feedback
- Link to work situations
- Include “How to” models
- Give lots of “Tips and Tricks” The Theorist As a Participant
- Likes structure (e.g. models)
- Likes theories
- Enjoys intellectual challenge
- Wants to see rationale and logic
- Clear purpose
- Hates chaos and confusion
What the facilitator needs to do
- Be organised
- Have a carefully-constructed programme
- Show clear objectives and purpose
- Use lots of models and theories The Reflector As a Participant
- Likes to have time to assimilate and absorb
- Research and investigate
- Careful analysis
- Observe and evaluate
- Dislikes being in an observed role play/action without planning
What the facilitator needs to do
- Use video to illustrate
- Include analysis of case studies
- Use research and report back with groups
- Have lots of review and download time SCALE:
0 = not at all
1 = to a very little extent
2 = to a little or some extent
3 = to a great extent
4 = to a very great extent Reflect on your effectiveness regarding the various roles of a facilitator and to evaluate areas for improvement. Facilitator Self-Assessment Role Inventory Participants ask questions to each other?
The participants are sitting at the same table
Move closer to the table where the participants are sitting and open the discussion to the whole group

The participants are discussing across the room, excluding everybody else
Observe the audience and if the audience body language indicates it’s OK, let it go on, but make sure to intervene when necessary Handling Questions – Be careful... * Unnecessarily patronising,
political, unsincere ... “Its funny that you
should say that”*
Watch your body language
Don’t comment on quality of question
Don’t get side-tracked
Don’t say…
We lateral chunk to access other examples.

What are other examples of this? Hierarchy of ideas - Lateral Chunking
Four types of ‘active’ Interventions include -

Causing the group to examine its dynamics and improve its performance

Encouraging member participation

Encouraging problem solving and decision making

Ensuring compliance with procedures, policies, ground rules, requirements that define the process within the organisation August 12 How to Intervene The Learner
Try to identify him/her early

Encourage his/her participation

Keep the energy flowing August 12 Listening
Active participation of attendees requires listening to what they say
When someone responds, avoid assuming you know what will be said
Interrupting and jumping to hasty conclusions will dampen the discussion

Accepting Different Opinions and Views
Be prepared for views that differ from yours
If you don’t agree with something, do not let the group think you agree of that information is correct if it is not????????

Effective technique that novice facilitators often struggle with the most Utilize the Correct Facilitation Technique The Participant’s Styles and how they work together Planning the
next steps Concluding from
the experience Having an
experience Reviewing the
experience Reflector Pragmatist Theorist Activist CASE-STUDY2 Action 1: Notes xxx xyz Case Study abc b) ___________________ Creating a meeting agenda c) _______________________________ a) ___________ In short _______________________ Matrix Partners preso! Harvard Business Review How to lower the cost of enterprise sales? = xxx S _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a s e m e d xxx CASE-STUDY The Cost to Acquire a Customer (CAC) exceeds the Life Time Value (LTV) a customer brings us. This is my third go-around selling to large enterprises, SkyStream, Kontiki and now Qumu.

I like to explain to you the problem the way I see it, the changes I suggest to avoid making the same mistake again. and Travels to Clients Research from Slides CASE-STUDY3 See the trend? Action 2: Action 3: EDITOR NOTE: Replace covers with magazine covers that are relevant to your problem Exercice - Assessing Your Preferential Sense Individual Exercise

« Assessing Your Preferential Sense »

 Time Allowed = 10 min.

Answer the 15 questions to assess your dominant mode Engage the Senses Most people gather information using one of these major senses:

Present materials and information in a way that appeals to the preferred sense of the participants The Left Half
Sequential The Right Half
Music The more links there are, the better we think holistically Linking the two parts:
the Corpus Callosum The two halves of the brain Creating an enjoyable and stimulating environment improves results A supportive group can do wonders Get the most from our brains Here’s a thought… After three days, we remember:

20% of what we read
30% of what we hear
40% of what we see
50% of what we say
90% of what we hear + see + say + do
So engage many senses How the (adult) Brain works Adults seldom use more than 1% of their brain capacity for thinking creatively or their memory
Only when in a physically-relaxed state and when emotions are in balance, will the brain engage fully
Our brain engages best when we
« see, hear, say, and do » How the adult process information Facilitators can help this phase by:

Guiding the group through effective processes to achieve desired outcomes
Avoiding the temptation to intervene unnecessarily Characteristics of this phase: -
Team fully productive and effective
Demands a high level of trust
Members recognised for and use unique talents
But… watch out for ‘group think’ – no challenges to decision making – riskier decisions Performing The group is now ready to tackle the next stage – the task itself! Facilitators can help this phase by:

Observing the emerging norms
Encouraging value of expressing differences positively
Working towards and holding group cohesiveness
Facilitating negotiation Characteristics of this phase: -
Cohesive group with co-operation and understanding
Established roles
Differences resolved
Developed written / unwritten rules or norms
Agreed decision making processes
Group ready to tackle task Norming Facilitators can help this phase by:

Planning introductions
Having an agenda and desired outcomes
Including warm-up activities (ice-breakers)
Listening to expectations
Establishing ground-rules
Agreeing how decisions will be made Characteristics of this phase: -
The group politely shares Information
Personal opinions are avoided
Similarities are explored
Group orientation is towards assigned tasks Forming Time Productivity adjourning performing norming storming forming Five Stages of Team Development Teams / groups have tremendous energy when first formed
New groups are excited, motivated, eager to tackle tasks
There are identifiable phases, characteristics and group and individual needs during the life of the group

Effective facilitators know how to identify each phase and guide the group through to maximise effectiveness Introduction Stages of team development How teams work together Section 2
Team and Participants behaviours August 12 Exercise Facilitators need to follow formal problem-solving and decision-making processes to help groups achieve defined goals and objectives. Following a structured process ensures that crucial steps are not skipped or overlooked.

Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem
Step 2: Research and Analyze the Problem
Step 3: Establish Criteria and Evaluate Solutions
Step 4: Explore and Generate Alternatives
Step 5: Evaluate and Choose the Best Solution Follow the problem solving model Creating an idea “Parking Lot” Timekeeper
Note-taker Identify the participant that will… Save your meeting from falling flat!

Encourage people to interact: Developing a Strong Opening Don’t skip this step!

The time spent up front will pay off through the meeting because the burden of policing will be transferred to the group. Establishing Ground Rules Ice breakers, Ground rules, Other roles required Opening the meeting August 12 Situation:

A project team composed of 6 members have to come to a decision on which idea to present to the customer.
The team has been working together for a long time and they all go on well with each other. Out of 6 ideas you know already that 2 have the preference of half of the group. The project leader told you that the customer might have a different view and asked you to make sure all ideas are considered.

Design a meeting agenda using or not the following elements:
AOB, Ice breaker, Introduction, …. Exercise - Preparing a Meeting Agenda August 12 Spend time upfront gathering background information
Sit down with problem owner
Review objectives and needs Understanding Needs The project meeting facilitator Causes of meeting ineffectiveness Creating the agenda, understanding needs and objectives Preparing the meeting August 12 Active Listening
Group Problem Solving Techniques
Resolving Conflict
Use Styles to Encourage Participation
Accepting of Others
Leading Required Skills for Facilitation Skilled facilitators strive for excellence in 3 main areas

Managing the facilitation process

Acting as a resource

Remaining neutral Role of a Facilitator August 12 Create 2 groups:

1st Group looks at the skills required for a facilitator
2nd group looks at roles of a facilitator

Time 15mn Exercise - Role and Skills of the Facilitator The process and experience is about the participants.
Point participants in the right direction
Make suggestions
Offer guidance

Allow the group to do the work It’s Not About You The defining difference between Leadership and Facilitation is really the difference between (detached) involvement and (active) commitment. Detachment versus Commitment A facilitator is a person who has no decision-making authority within a group but who guides to work more efficiently together, to create synergy, to generate new ideas, and to gain consensus and achieve an agreed outcome. What Is a Facilitator Stages of team development The facilitator Kinaesthetic
physical interaction, taste, smell…
what is felt Auditory
words, songs, music…
what is heard and said The Three Key Senses Visual
pictures, writing, body language…
what is seen Facilitators can help this phase by:

Guiding the group through effective processes to achieve desired outcomes
Avoiding the temptation to intervene unnecessarily Characteristics of this phase: -
Team fully productive and effective
Demands a high level of trust
Members recognised for and use unique talents
But… watch out for ‘group think’ – no challenges to decision making – riskier decisions Performing Participants must now give up personal preferences in favour of the group
Listen; be non-defensive; confront in a positive way; influence / be influenced
Conflict can be healthy! Resolve and move on! Facilitators can help this phase by:

Promoting good conflict resolution processes -
Separate problems from individuals
Not taking storming issues personally
Enforcing ground rules and role as process expert Characteristics of this phase: -
Questioning – ‘Who is responsible for what?’; ‘What are the rules?’
Group boundaries are tested
Power struggles
Silent members / dominant members
‘Hidden agendas’ that need talking out Storming An effectively facilitated meeting begins with a purpose.

Every decision revolves around the meeting’s goal

What outcomes would indicate the group achieved the meeting objective? Identifying the Business Goals and Objectives The physical environment can have a major impact on the success of any meeting. Check your toolbox for:

Room set up options

Room preparation check list Create an Effective Climate Group dynamic grows more complex with each member addition! August 12
People who will have an input
Decision making person if required
Balanced number Who Should Participate? ‘Radar’ Chart Global Participants
the big picture
need overall view of programme Linear Participants
specific order
logical flow Different Types of Participants Participants behaviours
and styles Now consider engaging the 8 intelligences! Presentation of information traditionally appeals to only a few of the 8 intelligences
By engaging all of them we create multiple chances to process information
…especially with younger people, brought up with computers and technology, a single tangent approach will no longer work! Topic of this research Research 1/2/3 Text 1 Conclusion Text 1 Key Actions 1 Create Template 2 Fill in the pieces 3 Start a joint editing session 4 Share on social media to gain feedback 5 Create your own template and share Follow me @IndoJacco
as I share more of the templates I use in the workplace Research A/B/C To avoid that this frame fills the screen draw a hidden frame around it Post-it notes to mark a key take-away I added the missing black market Post-it notes to mark a key take-away Section 1
Setting the scene This is your course, so what about...

Mobile telephones?

Time keeping?

Starting and stopping (breaks)?

Any others? Let’s agree on some rules Please...
Ask for clarification should we use unfamiliar terms or jargon
Ask us to slow down if we get excited and go too fast
Use “post-its” for questions and post these on the Question Car Park Question park This course will...
Help you improve your facilitation skills
Provide you with the knowledge, skills and confidence to facilitate meetings successfully Learning Objectives Take one flipchart paper and fold twice
(top to bottom, then left to right)

Write your name and job role at the top

Then draw a picture of you and your life
(no words except your name!)

On the inside left write your experiences as a facilitator and identify some of your strengths

On the inside right identify some of the challenges you have faced as a facilitator and points you would like to improve

Back page: your Learning Log Your Personal Notebook Key Expectations Key Expectations Learning Log Learning Log The Activist As a Participant
- Likes to be active
- Competitive
- Loves games, role plays, group discussions
- Likes attention
- Easily bored, hates lectures and monologues
What the facilitator needs to do
- Use lots of exercises and energetic tasks
- Not too much detailed theory
- Active participation required
- Not too much time for reflection
Full transcript