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Italian Renaissance vs Reformation
Transcript of Italian Renaissance vs Reformation
"The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance"
Define Individualism (Humanism) – study of humanities (thought or action where human values, interest, and dignity is the most important factor of one’s life)
Individualism in the Italian Renaissance
B. Individualism changes roles of Catholics and priesthood
He believes that "justification is by faith alone", and that people have their own interpretations of the Bible
Martin Luther questions the use of indulgences
Emphasized the idea of predestination (God saves some and danged some)
John Calvin rejected transubstantiation, believing that it's only a symbolic character
Luther declared people are to have their own interpretations of the Bible
Peace of Augsburg, which allows princes to choose between Lutheran and Catholic
Calvinism led to emergence of capitalism
Overall, Reformation is beginning of “free thought” away from church dogma (emphasizes human potential and action)
Reformation led to questioning of religious and governmental authorities.
Reformation not a rejection of secular spirit of Italian Renaissance because Reformation led to “religious individualism”.
Believes that the church doesn’t need extravagant possessions
Organized church isn’t necessary for salvation; reading the Bible alone is suffice
Representative of Hussites – a religious party that protest against German supremacy
Spread of Protestantism
Religious individualism describes attitude of people that refuse to submit to any external religious authority
Emphasizes enjoyment in earthly matters
Favoring pagan classics led to secular thoughts
Spirit of individualism, to a certain degree, provoked Protestant revolt
Italians became less and less attached to the Church
Also a Protestant; set up model Christian church at Geneva
Posted 95 thesis on door of Castle Church (1517)
Was supposed to be burned at stake when burned papal bull, but was saved by German princes
the Germans became a strong base in which Luther was able to form Lutheranism
the war ended with Peace of Augsburg signed in 1555 that states German princes have the right to choose Lutheran or Catholic for the religion of his region
Lutheran princes formed League of Schmalkald that waged war with Holy Roman Empire until 1555
believes that all appeals to senses should be modest
attracts millitant, uncompromising perfectionists
Capitalism – economic and social system in which means of production is privately controlled
led to emergence of capitalism
Calvin emphasize predestination while Luther say that grace is give to anyone that accepts it
Calvin refuse subordination of church to any govt.
Luther created "consubstantiation" while Calvin regards it as symbolic act
Differences between Lutheranism and Calvinism
Defense of 7 Sacraments
and received title “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo X
Wanted to annul marriage with Catherine of Aragon, Charles V’s aunt, and pope refused.
Appointed archbishop of Canterbury to marry Anne Boleyn
Passed Act of Supremacy that made English King “the only supreme head in earth of Church of England”
Fully enacted Reformation in England:
Succeeded by Edward VI
Second Act of Uniformity (1552) imposed revised edition of Book of Common Prayer. It taught justification by faith, supremacy of Holy Scripture, denied transubstantiation and recognized only 2 sacraments
Mary (Bloody Mary) succeeded Edward
tried to make England Catholic again but backfired:
married Philip of Spain (Englishmen hated Philip and intense Spanish Catholic)
burned 300 people accused as heretics
Elizabeth succeeded Mary
concealed religious views but gradually transformed England to Protestant
also ended the Tudor Drynasty because never married
Renaissance is linked to religion:
During Italian Renaissance
Corruption in the Church
Formation of towns created a middle class the economy depends on
After Protestant Reformation
had many branches (Lutheran, Anglican, etc.) that shared similar beliefs
caused "free thought" away from church dogma
Driven by the need to respond to Protestant challenge
shaped modern Catholicism
restated Catholic doctrines
reformed abuses of church
Factors in Renaissance concerning religion
Humanists claimed that they were searching for origins of Christianity in classical world
(Took classic texts and refer to the meanings prophetic of Christianity)