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Science Class Presentation

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Lilian Ukaegbu

on 15 July 2013

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Transcript of Science Class Presentation

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Enzymes, Temperature, & pH
Changing the temperature changes the rate of a chemical-catalysed reaction. This means that a higher temperature increases the rate, but if it gets too hot some bonds holding enzymes together break, destroying its special shape. For enzymes to work at their best potential, they should be at a temperature of 37 degrees.
Digestive Enzymes
Enzymes are produced by specialised cells and released from them. The digestive enzymes are like this. Digestive enzymes break down big molecules into smaller ones. For example:
Starch Maltose + Glucose
Overall, this means that:
Amylase catalyse the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine
Protease catalyze the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine
Lipase catalyse the breakdown of fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine
Digestive Enzymes
The breakdown of food is catalyzed by enzymes. Enzymes used in the digestive system are produced by specialized cells in the glands and the lining of the gut. Different enzymes that are produced catalyze the breakdown of different food molecules.
Amalyse Enzymes are made in:
The salivary glands
The pancreas
The small intestine
Protease Enzymes are made in:
The stomach (where its called pepsin)
The pancreas
The small intestine
Lipase Enzymes are made in:
The pancreas
The small intestine

Enzymes are biological catalysts- catalysts are substances that help increase the of chemical reactions without being used up. Enzymes are also proteins that are folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site. This Image below shows how it works:

Enzymes have special shapes that fit onto the substance involved in the reaction.
(Beware to analyze the enzyme diagram as a worksheet will be based on it later)
The pH also can interfere with the bonds in the enzymes if pH is too high or too low. Most enzymes work best at pH 7 which is neutral.
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