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Agile Innovation

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Ksenija Kuzmina-Conway

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Agile Innovation

Lean manufacturing is a practice of removing waste from the production that does not add value to the product.
Scrum is a management framework for
incremental product development
using one or more

It provides a structure of roles, meetings, rules and artifacts. Teams are responsible for creating and adapting their processes within this framework.

Scrum uses fixed-length iterations, called
, which are typically two weeks or 30 days long. Scrum teams attempt to build a potentially shippable (properly tested) product increment every iteration.
Introduction to SCRUM
How to stay competitive in a fast moving market? New ideas are important but getting new idea to the market in time is even more important!
Agile Innovation
Ksenija Kuzmina
Lecturer in Design Strategy
twitter: @Centre4Design

Developing Agile Principles
Writes an Agile Manifesto where Lean principles are applied to NEW product development
Cross-functional Leadership
SCRUM Structure
Before there was Agile there was Lean.
How do you define Lean?
First scientific studies of individual workers and work methods. Focusing on optimising how work was done, leading to formalisation of work standards.
Frederick W. Taylor, 1890s
Lilian and Frank Gilberths, 1900s
Added concept of breaking work down into elementary blocks. Introduced Process Mapping that visualised a process by which product is produced. Helps to discriminate value-added and waste processes
Henry Ford, 1910s
The Ford system - integration of the entire production process. Ford had a standardised product for which the standardised processes were developed leading to assembly line manufacturing processes.
What are the main issues with this production?
Toyoda family embarks on auto-manufacturing business. It looks at Ford and recognises limitations: Resources are limited due to WWII; Company cannot afford Mass Production due to smaller market size and the need of large stock inventories.
Kiichiro Toyoda, 1940s
Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System

A system that is based on Just-in-Time philosophy, rather than Just-in-Case (as with Ford)
Producing only what is needed, in necessary quantity and at necessary time.

Mix models produced on the same production line to cater the customer demand

Pull rather than push system is used. Production activities begin as a result of the pull generated by the customers in the form of order confirmation by them.

Flow management methods and techniques to ensure continuous flow of the product is possible

History of Lean Manufacturing
Origins of Agile Management
Agile Management originates in a knowledge-based domain of software development as an alternative to waterfall framework of
product development.
Contains a series of phases that guide product development and its release.
Feedback loops exist between each phase, so it is possible to "go back" a phase and make appropriate modification.

Gathering and analysing customers' needs/context/business requirements

Developing design specifications, defining hardware/software architecture, security parameters, etc.

Individual components are developed and integrated into a larger whole

Waterfall framework
Quality assurance, checking to see whether it is fit for use, problems are fed back to implementation team

Making modifications to the system or an individual component to alter attributes or improve performance through updates

Discipline, there is a start and finish to each stage;
Easy to manage due to rigidity
Each phase is processed one at a time
Good for projects where requirements are pre-specified
From verification stage it is very difficult to go back to concept stage if something was not well thought out
No working product is produced until late in the life cycle
High amount of risk and uncertainty (ex. customer satisfaction)
Poor model for long and ongoing projects
Not suitable for the projects where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.
Upfront high costs
Agile Alliance, 2001
Agile Innovation values (extracted from Agile Manifesto):
1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
2. Working products over comprehensive documentation
3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation and
4. Responding to change over following the plan

Agile process focuses on inspection and adaption of the product development and enforces transparency across all stakeholders which should lead to a successful process
Agile Principles
Have been used to develop a series of "light-weighted" frameworks including:
eXtreme, Kanban, Crystal, Dynamic System Development Method
SCRUM Process
Iteration Detail
Scrum blends all development activities into each iteration, adapting to discovered realities at fixed intervals. This process is inherently about innovation. Learning process.
Scaling Lean and Agile Development: Thinking and Organizational Tools for Large-Scale Scrum
Larman and Vodde (2009)
Product-led Leadership
1. Team works on a product over a long period of time
2. Maximises product knowledge/productivity
3. Product owner responsible solely for the output of their group
4. Practice leads ensure/advocate standards across teams, help or organise recruitment within their community, in conflict of interest overriden by product owner
1. Horizontal integration across teams, this moves away from department based structure that is common in waterfall framework.
2. This structure give individuals two reporting lines (function and project)
3. Increases the number of managers, reducing the average productivity of the organisation.
SCRUM Artefacts
SCRUM does not have a project management role, it is spread amongst the team
Product Backlog
Sprint Backlog
PO puts priority onto the backlog items
Everything we might ever do - the
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Captures request for modifying product
Ex. add new features, replace old features, remove features, and fix issues

Use case scenarios
-represent new functionality
- represent work to address a defect

Makes backlog visible
Any member of the team can put items on there
force ranked
What we have agreed to do during current Sprint
There is an end date to this!
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Committed backlog items
Not started
In progress
What needs to be done
How is it getting done (Kanban board)
SCRUM Meetings
Backlog Refinement Meeting
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
The purpose of these meetings is to make improvements to the Product Backlog
1. Write user stories (it is possible to build a Product Backlog “from scratch” in a series of one or more StoryTime sessions)
2. Break down user stories that are too big (epics)
3. Improve user stories that are poorly written
4. Estimate backlog items
5. Add acceptance criteria
6. Look deeper into the backlog to do longer-range technical planning
Sprint Planning Meeting
Daily Scrum
Sprint Review Meeting
Sprint Retrospective Meeting
1. The purpose of these meetings is for the team and Product Owner to negotiate which items from the product backlog will be committed to the sprint.
2. The team pulls priority to sprint backlog, breaks them into smaller tasks, decides whether it is a right amount of things for them to do, and whether they understand what they need to do.
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Sprint Backlog
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Product Backlog Item
Not started
1. During execution time, team meets daily for a scrum meeting (usually 15mns each)
2. Collaborative work means that team meets all the time. This meeting is official to report back to each other.
3. What did I do yesterday? What are my plans for today? Tell the team what impedes you?
4. Scrum master moves tasks and closes them
1. At Sprint Review, the team shows PO and other stakeholders their shippable incremental product

2. PO will declare which items are done, which items did not meet their acceptance criteria

3. Get feedback from stakeholders how the team is doing with the product. Usually at this stage stakeholder recognises something needs to get changed in the product, the vision, or other requirements.

4. These regular meetings help to provide
feedback on the product and its emerging
1. Each Sprint finishes with a retrospective meeting, during which time the team can go back to inspect and adapt their own process of working

2. Ask what went wrong? What went well? how can team improve? Feedback is provided to each other.

3. Team takes ownership of their own process

4. The feedback on the process the team uses to
build the product
What went well?
What can be improved?
SCRUM Backlog Refinement Exercise
1. Define what is being developed (re-design a product OR organise an event)
2. Scrum Master defines the
during which the meeting will take place, and makes sure that the meeting is on time
3. Decide as a team what goes into backlog, with PO providing priority to the list
5. The Product Backlog Item (PBI) should be Independent, Negotiable (time or scope), Valuable, Estimable, Small, and Testable
4. PO starts by defining the priorities based on their vision and return on investment
7. Scrum Master use
'estimation method'
to get a better cross section opinions from the team about the efforts to get PBI into shippable form. Estimation Method uses S, M, L and XL as a measurement. Write it down and then reveal to the whole group. Discuss the differences.
8. Scrum Master needs to make sure that
are split into valuable parts as
USE stories
. The question is what can be done in the first Sprint? Re-prioritise! (what is opinion of PO?)
Develop Use Cases by identifying Who, What and Why?
Tell a story in each case from the user's point of view.

10. Identify Acceptance Criteria for when this item is considered done and an Effort measurement - how difficult it is to complete.
Item 1
Product Backlog Item (EPIC)
Item 2
Item 3
Use story
Acceptance criteria
Use story
Acceptance criteria
Use story
Acceptance criteria
6. Scrum Master makes sure the team is not overwhelmed with items by focusing on top few
Scrum Master check list printed
Product Burndown Chart
What is the visible difference in purposes of Lean and Agile?
Full transcript