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Copy of The Islamic Empire 570 - 1400s

Teacher created - Middle School level
by

Jeremiah Harris

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The Islamic Empire 570 - 1400s

Medina
Islam

Chapter 3 Islam
Sec. 1 The Origins of Islam
Arabia
is a large peninsula located in southwest Asia (the Middle East). It is surrounded on three sides by: the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea
.
Arabia's harsh environment
kept it relatively isolated from the rest of the world. It is made up
mostly
of
mountains and deserts
and has
little water.
Arabian Peninsula
In the 7th century, a new religion,
Islam,

was born in Arabia.
One was a
nomadic
life, in which people move from place to place with no fixed home.
The other was a
sedentary,
or
settled, life in an oasis town or
trade center.
Two distinct ways of life existed in ancient Arabia.




Both were organized into
tribes
. Their main loyalty was to tribe and family rather than
to rulers.
Mecca
was an oasis town that had grown into a large trading center, a city that welcomed local,
as well as, long-distance trade.
In it, were icons of the
local tribal gods which
were kept there for
safe-keeping.
Mecca was the home of an important shrine
called the

Kaaba.
Muhammad was a trader. At 25, he married a wealthy, widowed merchant named
Khadija.
Their business thrived, and Muhammad became, like Khadija, a respected member of the community.
Muhammad, however, was critical of the greed, corruption, and violence present in Meccan society. He often went out into the desert to reflect and meditate.
Muhammad told the Arabs to worship the one, true God, called
Allah
in Arabic,
and to give up their sinful ways.

Sedentary Arabs:

mostly farmers
and merchants
Nomadic Arabs
(Bedouins):
Mecca
Gradually, Muhammad began to win believers. They were called
Muslims,
or followers of Islam.
In 622, Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca
to Yathrib (
Medina:
"the city of the prophet").

Muslims remember this flight as the
Hijra.
The Hijra
In Medina, Muhammad gradually
gained many more followers, and
in
630,
he returned to Mecca as a
conqueror.
By the time of his death in 632,
Muhammad had converted most
of the Arabian Peninsula to Islam.
Because "Allah" is Arabic for "God" - the same God as that of the Jews and Christians, Muslims recognize the Jewish Torah and the Christian Gospels as holy books. Therefore, they refer to Jews and Christians as
"People of the Book."
For Muslims, the Qur'an is the word of God.
Another major source of Islamic thought is the
Sunnah.

The central belief in Islam is the existence of one God. Muslims honor Muhammad as a prophet, but he often reminded Muslims to remember that he was not divine.
Muslims have five key religious duties.
They are known as the
Five Pillars.
1.

The Shahada:

The
profession of faith:
"There is no God but God,
and Muhammad is his messenger."
Section 3 The Spread of Islam
Section 2 The Beliefs of Islam
After Muhammad's death, the Muslim community chose
Abu Bakr
to become his successor, or
caliph
.
The Spread of Islam took place in three phases:
5. The Hajj:

a
pilgrimage
(a journey to a holy place)
to Mecca
once in your lifetime - if possible.

1st: Conquests by Arab Muslim armies.

2nd: Conquests by non-Arab Muslim armies.
3rd: Merchants & Missionaries spread Islam peacefully.
But the most sacred text in Islam is the
Qur'an,

the Muslim holy book.
2. The Salah:


Prayer five times a day
- facing in the direction
of Mecca ... if a mosque (Muslim house of worship)
is available - if not, wherever you are.
4. The Sawm:
Fasting
(going without food or drink) from daybreak
to sunset
during the month of Ramadan.
3. The Zakah:
Almsgiving:

Giving
(charity)
to the poor and needy.

Five Pillars of Islam
The Arabian Sea
The Red Sea
The Persian Gulf
Two ways of life in Arabia
Many Arabs, however, were hostile to Muhammad's message, especially in Mecca. They began to persecute Muhammad and his followers, and a
plan to assassinate Muhammad was discovered.
Arabs who did not agree with Muhammad forced him and his followers to leave Mecca.
The
first phase
of the spread of Islam
continued under
the leadership of the next caliph,
Umar ibn al-Khattab.
There were several reasons for the Arab armies' success in the spread of Islam and Arab rule.
1. The Persian and Byzantine empires
were weakened from constant fighting.
2. The skill of the Arab armies: They were
accomplished horsemen with a tradition
of centuries of fighting experience.
3. Arab warriors fought with great religious

zeal
(eagerness) under the banner of
jihad,
or holy struggle.
4. Muslims' tolerance for other religions,
customs, and beliefs: The Persian and
Byzantine empires were not very tolerant
of other beliefs.
5. The appeal of Islam itself: Islam offered
a direct path to God and salvation, and it
emphasized the equality of all believers.
In the
second phase
of the spread of Islam,
non-Arab Muslims
helped spread Islam through conquest.
Though conquests continued, the
third phase
of Muslim expansion was
mostly peaceful.
Today, Muslims are divided into two main groups.

Sunnis
are the majority Islamic sect.
(apprx. 85%)
After Muhammad's death, Sunnis felt that all caliphs to follow Muhammad should be selected from the Muslim community.
Shiites, on the other hand, felt that the all caliphs should be selected from Muhammad's family only.
Shiites
are the minority Islamic sect.
(apprx. 15%)
The method for selection of caliphs became
the biggest difference between them.
Although they have differences, they
share the same basic beliefs of Islam.
Contrary to
common belief,
fewer than 20%
of Muslims
are Arabs.
Islam is the second-largest religion in the world.
Nearly half of Muslims live
in South and Southeast Asia,
mostly in Indonesia.
The Arabian Peninsula
For centuries Arabs relied on the
oasis
for
their survival. An oasis is
a

fertile place in
the desert
where a spring or a well provides a
water supply
.
The
Qur'an
discusses the
nature of God, creation,
and the human soul.
It addresses moral, legal,
ethical, and family issues.
Muslims believe that because the Qur'an is the word of God, it must be studied in its original language - Arabic.
The written record of the
Sunnah is called the "Hadith."
The
Sunnah
provides Muslims with a model for living
a proper life - Muhammad. It also discusses moral,
legal, and ethical matters. And, it helps explain
difficult parts of the Qur'an.
Muslims believe that each person
has an individual and eternal soul.

Arab
nomads
(Bedouins) were
mostly herders who took pride
in their ability to adapt to life
in the desert.
They were also proud of their fighting skills.
Tribes had to defend themselves from raids by
other tribes who wanted food, water, or livestock.
Mecca was also a major religious center in Arabia. It was here, around 570, that

Muhammad

was born.
It was a city that was frequented by people from many different parts of the world, and this resulted in a high degree of cultural exchange.
Tribes came in from
many parts of Arabia
to worship their
particular gods.
There, according to Islamic beliefs, he received revelations from the angel
Gabriel
- revelations that told him to spread God's word.
Back in
Mecca,
Muhammad began to preach
of the God that Gabriel had revealed to him.
He claimed to be the final prophet of the most complete version of God's truth that began with the Jews and Christians.
The Qur'an names this religion

Islam.
Muslims call this flight to Medina the
hijra.
They fled to the town of Yathrib, now known
as Medina, or "City of the Prophet."
Muhammad then forgave the
Meccans and went to the Kaaba.
There, he had the pagan idols removed,
and he dedicated the shrine to Allah.
Muslim merchants and missionaries
spread
Islam along trade routes. Southeast Asia and West Africa were exposed to Islam this way.
In the
first phase
of the spread of Islam, his Arab armies united Arabia under the banner of Islam.
Conquests would continue under other caliphs.
His Arab armies conquered much of the Middle East and North Africa.
Groups such as the Turks and Mongols converted to Islam while in Muslim lands, and then took it back to their homelands.
Their efforts spread Islam to Central Asia, southeastern Europe, western China, and India.
Explain the significance of the following quotes from the Hadith
:
The one who eats his fill while his neighbor goes without food, is not a believer.
God does not look upon your bodies and appearances, He looks upon your heart and your deeds.
mostly herders
And, they believe that each person
makes choices in life that affect
what happens after death.
They believe in heaven and hell.

It is said to be a record of the revelations from Gabriel to Muhammad over a period of 22 years.
It's
an account of the words
and actions of Muhammad,

according to people who knew
him during his lifetime.
The Islamic Empire
570 - 1400 AD
Full transcript