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Transcript of Chinese Culture
Megan Cassidy Fighting Stereotypes Two Truths and a Lie Origin of the Chinese Culture The Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world - it dates back to 1600 B.C. Detailed historic records show a succession of dynasties that began with the Xia dynasty and ended in the early 20th century when the Republic of China was formed. Although China was ruled by many dynasties, there were times that parts of China were under the control of foreign empires. The History of China China is Ruled by the these Dynasties:
Xia Zhou Qin Han 2100 B.C.- 220 C.E. 581 C.E. - 1912 C.E. "Period of Disunity"
The Chinese empire was divided as parts were ruled by foreign empires and other parts by dynasties China is Ruled by the Following Dynasties:
Ming Qing 220 C.E - 589 C.E. Republic Period:
The Dynastic System collapses between 1911 and 1912 and the new Nationalist Government attempts to unify the country. 1912 C.E.- 1949 C.E. People's Republic of China:
The Communist Government Established in 1949 remains today. 1949 C.E. - Present Immigration to the United States Immigration to the United States The first documented immigrants came during the 18th Century There was a significant increase in immigration in the 1880's during the California Gold Rush The first Chinese immigrants were mostly wealthy merchants, artisans, fishermen, and business owners and were well received by Americans After many unskilled workers began to immigrate to the United States, Americans became hostile toward the Chinese Chinese Immigrants usually settled as groups in Chinatowns across the country San Francisco initially held the highest population of immigrants As immigration from China increased there was an increase in American hatred toward the immigrants Concern over large numbers of immigrants Growth in Nativism Competition for Work Naturalization Act of 1870 First Act that Restricted Immigration to the United States This Act Restricted Immigration to the Untied States to only individuals of Caucasian or African descent Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Banned immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States Placed travel restrictions on immigrants already living in the United States Prevented Immigrants from receiving citizenship The Chinese Exclusion Act Expired in 1892, but was replaced by the Geary Act, which remained in effect until the 1920s All immigration exclusion acts were repealed in 1943, but strict regulations on immigration and citizenship remained The Immigration Reform Act of 1965 ended these strict regulations Ethnicity The Majority of Chinese Americans have immigrated from either the mainland of China or Taiwan In China the Han Chinese make up 95% of the total population - the other 5% of the population is made up of 55 indigenous groups Language Mandarin is the official language in China and Taiwan Cantonese is another major dialect There are a total of 8 dialects and many Chinese speak more than one dialect. China has implemented a language reform program to simplify and unify the languages and dialects. Traditional Chinese Clothing The traditional dress for women is called the qipao or cheongsam Religions Confucianism Taoism Buddhism Christianity Confucianism emphasizes social roles and humaneness or virtues Islam Islam Christianity Religious Freedom In China The Chinese Constitution allows Chinese Citizens the Freedom of Religion All of the religions in China are considered equal and all are supposed to coexist harmoniously. In reality, the Communist Government in China does not tolerate any religious groups that do not support the Chinese Communist Party. The traditional dress for men is a tunic or jacket over pants Red is generally worn for special occasions and events Black, white, brown, white, beige, yellow and many bright colors are very popular in traditional clothing Chinese Food A typical meal usually consists of a main carbohydrate or starch source and side dishes of vegetables, meat or fish. The texture, flavor, color and the scent of food is of the utmost importance and most food is cut into small pieces for ease of eating. Vegetables are an important part of the Chinese diet and are usually found in every region. Wheat, Corn and Vegetables are staples in Northern China, whereas rice, sweet potatoes and vegetables are staples in Southern China Family Family is the basic and most important unit of society. It is not uncommon for two or three generations to live in the same household. Since the 1970's, a one-child-per-household rule has been in place in China Chinese families follow the patrilineal descent system The father is the leader and makes most of the decisions and children are expected to obey in all circumstances. Gender Roles Men: Protection, Financial Support and Decision Maker Women: Care for the home and the children
Many women today have careers and jobs in the workforce. Cultural Values Collectivist Culture Hold all elders in high respect Education and literacy are incredibly important Value harmony in all relationships Importance of Family Humility and Emotional Self-Control The Concept of Saving Face "Face" refers to the credibility or reputation of a person The concept of "face" can be earned or lost based on the actions or behaviors of a person or by the actions or words of another person. Communication Styles Appear shy, especially in new environments Find it difficult to say "no" in any situation speak in an indirect manner A handshake is an appropriate greeting Direct Eye Contact is valued unless speaking with an elder Pay close attention to facial expressions, tone of voice and posture Yin-Yang Balance of Hot and Cold Elements 5 Key Elements: Metal, Wood, Fire, Water and Earth Yin and Yang are polar opposites that are connected in a "circular harmony" Harmony between Yin and Yang leads to good health, weather and prosperity A lack of harmony leads to illness, disaster and misfortune Qi Translated into English Qi means "vital energy" Qi comes from 3 sources: heritage, food and the air Deals with the balance of energy in the body An imbalance in Qi results in death Tai Chi promotes Qi balance Native Health Care The goal of Traditional Chinese Medicine is to restore harmony, Qi and yin and yang in the body Chinese Herbal Medicine is used both for treatments and as preventative measures. Moxibustion Coin Rubbing Cupping Fire Western Medicine Vs. Traditional Chinese Medicine Western Medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine Cause of Disease An External Organism or Force Something Inside the Body Focus of Medicine Treat Individual Diseases Holistic Approach Emphasis of Medicine Intervention Prevention Definition of Health Absence of Disease Combination of Many Factors Helpful Healthcare Tips Medical decisions are made as a family, with the oldest adult male having the final say The patient is expected to take a passive role and the family often takes care of the patient Patients do not often complain of pain or discomfort Today, many patients prefer to combine Western medicine and traditional health care practices Causes of Disease and Illness Genetic defects are usually considered the mother's fault Physical illness is believed to be caused by an imbalance of Yin and Yang either in the body or the environment Education Each Child is Required to Have 9 Years of Formal Education Four Categories: Preschool Education, Primary Education, Secondary Education and Higher Education Preschool Education could be as long as three years Primary Education begins around age six and lasts for 5-6 years Secondary Education consists of 3 years of junior secondary education and about 3 years of senior secondary education or education at a vocational or technical school Higher education consists of education at a junior college, four-year college or university Education in the United States vs. Education in China Higher Education Institutions are better in the United States than they are in China There is a higher respect for teachers in China than there is for teachers in the United States Chinese School have a very hard work ethic that results greater student successes The high stakes testing to move on to the next grade causes many Chinese students to drop out of the school system in China Scholarly Research A Model Minority? Mulan is a real Chinese hero Fortune Cookies are a traditional Chinese Dessert There is freedom of religion in China Round 1: Which One is a Lie? Round 2: Which One is a Lie? China's Official National Animal is the Panda Traditionally, eating with a fork and a knife was considered barbaric Fearful of having blood drawn because it will weaken the body Round 3: Which One is a Lie? The Five Earthly Elements are
Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water The Han ethnic group is commonly called the Chinese ethnic group in the United States Rice is a staple ingredient in food in all of China Population and Geographic Spread Significant Cultural Customs Chinese Tea Ceremony Chinese New
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